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Author (up) Amanda Langer; Marc-André Kaufhold; Elena Maria Runft; Christian Reuter; Margarita Grinko; Volkmar Pipek pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Counter Narratives in Social Media: An Empirical Study on Combat and Prevention of Terrorism Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Counter Narratives, Online Campaign, Social Media, Terrorism, Radicalisation  
  Abstract With the increase of terrorist attacks and spreading extremism worldwide, countermeasures advance as well. Often

social media is used for recruitment and radicalization of susceptible target groups. Counter narratives are trying

to disclose the illusion created by radical and extremist groups through a purposive and educational counter

statement, and to initiate a rethinking in the affected individuals via thought-provoking impulses and advice. This

exploratory study investigates counter narrative campaigns with regard to their fight and prevention against

terrorism in social media. Posts with strong emotions and a personal reference to affected individuals achieved

the highest impact and most reactions from the target group. Furthermore, our results illustrate that the impact of

a counter narrative campaign cannot be measured solely according to the reaction rate to their postings and that

further analysis steps are therefore necessary for the final evaluation of the campaigns.
 
  Address University of Siegen, Institute for Information Systems, Germany;Technische Universität Darmstadt, Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC), Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1861  
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Author (up) Anna Kruspe; Jens Kersten; Friederike Klan pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Detecting event-related tweets by example using few-shot models Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Social media, Twitter, Relevance, Keywords, Hashtags, Few-shot models, One-class classification  
  Abstract Social media sources can be helpful in crisis situations, but discovering relevant messages is not trivial. Methods

have so far focused on universal detection models for all kinds of crises or for certain crisis types (e.g. floods).

Event-specific models could implement a more focused search area, but collecting data and training new models for

a crisis that is already in progress is costly and may take too much time for a prompt response. As a compromise,

manually collecting a small amount of example messages is feasible. Few-shot models can generalize to unseen

classes with such a small handful of examples, and do not need be trained anew for each event. We show how

these models can be used to detect crisis-relevant tweets during new events with just 10 to 100 examples and

counterexamples. We also propose a new type of few-shot model that does not require counterexamples.
 
  Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1911  
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Author (up) Asmelash Teka Hadgu; Sallam Abualhaija; Claudia Niederée pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Real-time Adaptive Crawler for Tracking Unfolding Events on Twitter Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords social search, real-time adaptive search, event tracking, crsis communication  
  Abstract When a major event such as a crisis situation occurs, people post messages on social media sites such as Twitter, in

order to exchange information or to share emotions. These posts can provide useful information to raise situation

awareness and support decision making, e.g., by aid organizations. In this paper, we propose a novel method for

social media crawling, which exploits a Bayesian inference framework to keep track of keyword changes over time

and uses a counter-stream to gauge the inclusion of noise and irrelevant information. In addition, we present a

framework to evaluate real-time adaptive social search algorithms in a reproducible manner, which relies on a

semi-automated approach for ground-truth construction. We show that our method outperforms previous methods

for very large scale events.
 
  Address L3S Research Center, Leibniz universität Hannover, Germany;Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1985  
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Author (up) Fedor Vitiugin; Carlos Castillo pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Comparison of Social Media in English and Russian During Emergencies and Mass Convergence Events Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Social Media, Crisis Informatics, Twitter, Information Extraction.  
  Abstract Twitter is used for spreading information during crisis events. In this paper, we first retrieve event-related information

posted in English and Russian during six disasters and sports events that received wide media coverage in both

languages, using an adaptive information filtering method for automating the collection of about 100 000 messages.

We then compare the contents of these messages in terms of 17 informational and linguistic features using a

difference in differences approach. Our results suggest that posts in each language are focused on different types

of information. For instance, almost 50% of the popular people mentioned in these messages appear exclusively

in either the English messages or the Russian messages, but not both. Our results also suggest differences in the

adoption of platform mechanics during crises between Russian-speaking and English-speaking users. This has

important implications for data collection during crises, which is almost always focused on a single language.
 
  Address Independent;Universitat Pompeu Fabra  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 1916  
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Author (up) Firoj Alam; Ferda Ofli; Muhammad Imran pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title CrisisDPS: Crisis Data Processing Services Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Social media, humanitarian data processing, text classification, application programming interfaces, data processing services  
  Abstract Over the last few years, extensive research has been conducted to develop technologies to support humanitarian aid

tasks. However, many technologies are still limited as they require both manual and automatic approaches, and

more importantly, are not ready to be integrated into the disaster response workflows. To tackle this limitation, we

develop automatic data processing services that are freely and publicly available, and made to be simple, efficient,

and accessible to non-experts. Our services take textual messages (e.g., tweets, Facebook posts, SMS) as input to

determine (i) which disaster type the message belongs to, (ii) whether it is informative or not, and (iii) what type of

humanitarian information it conveys. We built our services upon machine learning classifiers that are obtained from

large-scale comparative experiments utilizing both classical and deep learning algorithms. Our services outperform

state-of-the-art publicly available tools in terms of classification accuracy.
 
  Address Qatar Computing Research Institute, Qatar  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1891  
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Author (up) Gabriela C Barrera; Maria C Yang pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Evaluation of Digital Volunteers using a Design Approach: Motivations and Contributions in Disaster Response Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Crowd-sourcing, Social Media, Digital Volunteer, Spatial Data Quality, User Design  
  Abstract With the growth of social media and crowdsourcing in disaster response, further research is needed on the motivations

and contributions of digital volunteers. This study applies a user-centered design approach to understanding how we

might make better tools to support digital volunteers. This user-centered design approach involves stated preference

elicitation methods through an online survey to understand what digital volunteers want in such tools. Through

choice-based conjoint analysis, we contribute to mixed-methods research to gain additional insight into motivations

and user preferences for a set of design features that might be incorporated into an online tool specifically for digital

volunteers. Initial results show preferences for measures of success that were not monetary, which aligned with

directly stated motivations for volunteering. Our findings corroborate with previous research in that feedback to

volunteers is very important, as well as being able to measure the impact of their work.
 
  Address MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1970  
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Author (up) Guoqin Ma; Chittayong Surakitbanharn pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Predicting Hurricane Damage Using Social Media Posts Coupled with Physical and Socio-Economic Variables Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Social media, disaster management, damage prediction  
  Abstract During a natural disaster or emergency event, individual social media posts or hot spots may not necessarily correlate

to the most devastated areas. To better understand the correlation between social media and physical damage, we

compare Tweets, data about the physical environment, and socio-economic factors with insurance claim information

(as a proxy for physical damage) from 2017 Hurricane Irma in the state of Florida. We use machine learning

to identify relevant Tweets, sensitivity analyses to identify socio-economic factors, and statistical regression to

determine the predictive capability of insurance claims as a proxy for damage. We find that Tweets alone result in a

poorly fitted regression model of insurance claims, but the inclusion of physical features (e.g., power outages, wind

level) and socio-economic factors (e.g., population density, education, Internet access) improves the modelís fit.

Such models contribute to the knowledge base that may allow social media to predict damage in real-time.
 
  Address Stanford University, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1955  
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Author (up) Humaira Waqas; Muhammad Imran pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title #CampFireMissing: An Analysis of Tweets About Missing and Found People From California Wildfires Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords social media, Twitter, missing and found people, California wildfires, disaster response  
  Abstract Several research studies have shown the importance of social media data for humanitarian aid. Among others,

the issue of missing and lost people during disasters and emergencies is crucial for disaster managers. This work

analyzes Twitter data from a recent wildfire event to determine its usefulness for the mitigation of the missing and

found people issue. Data analysis performed using various filtering techniques, and trend analysis revealed that

Twitter contains important information potentially useful for emergency managers and volunteers to tackle this

issue. Many tweets were found containing full names, partial names, location information, and other vital clues

which could be useful for finding missing people.
 
  Address Qatar Computing Research Institute, Qatar  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1915  
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Author (up) Jens Kersten; Anna Kruspe; Matti Wiegmann; Friederike Klan pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Robust filtering of crisis-related tweets Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Filtering, Convolutional Neural Networks, Natural Disasters, Twitter, Model Transferability  
  Abstract Social media enables fast information exchange and status reporting during crises. Filtering is usually required to

identify the small fraction of social media stream data related to events. Since deep learning has recently shown to

be a reliable approach for filtering and analyzing Twitter messages, a Convolutional Neural Network is examined for

filtering crisis-related tweets in this work. The goal is to understand how to obtain accurate and robust filtering

models and how model accuracies tend to behave in case of new events. In contrast to other works, the application

to real data streams is also investigated. Motivated by the observation that machine learning model accuracies

highly depend on the used data, a new comprehensive and balanced compilation of existing data sets is proposed.

Experimental results with this data set provide valuable insights. Preliminary results from filtering a data stream

recorded during hurricane Florence in September 2018 confirm our results.
 
  Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany;Bauhaus-Universität Weimar  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1909  
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Author (up) Jess Kropczynski; Rob Grace; Shane Halse; Doina Caragea; Cornelia Caragea; Andrea Tapia pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Refining a Coding Scheme to Identify Actionable Information on Social Media Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Dispatch, Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), Social Media, Qualitative Coding.  
  Abstract This paper describes the use of a previously established qualitative coding scheme developed through a design workshop with public safety professionals, and applied the schema to social media data collecting during crises. The intention of applying this scheme to existing crisis datasets was to acquire training data for machine learning. Applying the coding scheme to social media data revealed that additional subcategories of the coding scheme are necessary to satisfy information requirements necessary to dispatch first responders to an incident. The coding scheme was refined and adapted into a set of instructions for qualitative coders on Amazon Mechanical Turk. The contribution of this work is a coding scheme that is more directly related to the information needs of public safety professionals. Implications of early results using the refined coding scheme are discussed in terms of proposed automated methods to identify actionable information for dispatch of first responders during emergency incidents.  
  Address Uiniversity of Cincinnati, United States of America;The Pennsylvania State University;Kansas State University;University of Illinois at Chicago  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1981  
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Author (up) Liuqing Li; Edward A. Fox pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Understanding patterns and mood changes through tweets about disasters Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Disaster, Pattern, User Classification, Mood Detection, Twitter  
  Abstract We analyzed a sample of large tweet collections gathered since 2011, to expand understanding about tweeting

patterns and emotional responses of different types of tweeters regarding disasters. We selected three examples for

each of four disaster types: school shooting, bombing, earthquake, and hurricane. For each collection, we deployed

our novel model TwiRole for user classification, and an existing deep learning model for mood detection. We

found differences in the daily tweet count patterns, between the different types of events. Likewise, there were

different average scores and patterns of moods (fear, sadness, surprise), both between types of events, and between

events of the same type. Further, regarding surprise and fear, there were differences among roles of tweeters. These

results suggest the value of further exploration as well as hypothesis testing with our hundreds of event and trend

related tweet collections, considering indications in those that reflect emotional responses to disasters.
 
  Address Virginia Tech, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1863  
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Author (up) Marion Lara Tan; Raj Prasanna; Kristin Stock; Emma Hudson-Doyle; Graham Leonard; David Johnston pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Enhancing the usability of a disaster app: exploring the perspective of the public as users Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords usability inquiry, mobile application, disasters, alerts, public perspective  
  Abstract Limited research has studied how citizensí perspectives as end-users can contribute to improving the usability of disaster apps. This study addresses this gap by exploring end-user insights with the use of a conceptual disaster app in the New Zealand (NZ) context. NZ has multiple public alerting authorities that have various technological options in delivering information to the populationís mobile devices; including social media platforms, apps, as well as the Emergency Mobile Alert system. However, during critical events, the multiplicity of information may become overwhelming. A disaster app, conceptualised in the NZ context, aims to aggregate, organise, and deliver information from official sources to the public. After the initial conceptual design, a usability inquiry was administered by interviewing members of the public. Partial results of the inquiry show that the publicís perspective has value; in the process of understanding the new userís viewpoint, usability highlights and issues are identified.  
  Address Massey University, New Zealand;GNS Science, New Zealand  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 1946  
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Author (up) Paige Maas; Shankar Iyer; Andreas Gros; Wonhee Park; Laura McGorman; Chaya Nayak; P. Alex Dow pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Facebook Disaster Maps: Aggregate Insights for Crisis Response & Recovery Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords crisis mapping, crisis informatics, GIS, social media  
  Abstract After a natural disaster or other crisis, humanitarian organizations need to know where affected people are located

and what resources they need. While this information is difficult to capture quickly through conventional methods,

aggregate usage patterns of social media apps like Facebook can help fill these information gaps.

In this paper, we describe the data and methodology that power Facebook Disaster Maps. These maps utilize

information about Facebook usage in areas impacted by natural hazards, producing aggregate pictures of how the

population is affected by and responding to the hazard. The maps include insights into evacuations, cell network

connectivity, access to electricity, and long-term displacement.

In addition to descriptions and examples of each map type, we describe the source data used to generate the maps,

and efforts taken to ensure the security and privacy of Facebook users. We also describe limitations of the current

methodologies and opportunities for improvement.
 
  Address Facebook, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 1912  
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Author (up) Richard McCreadie; Cody Buntain; Ian Soboroff pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title TREC Incident Streams: Finding Actionable Information on Social Media Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Emergency Management, Crisis Informatics, Real-time, Twitter, Categorization  
  Abstract The Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) Incident Streams track is a new initiative that aims to mature social

media-based emergency response technology. This initiative advances the state of the art in this area through an

evaluation challenge, which attracts researchers and developers from across the globe. The 2018 edition of the track

provides a standardized evaluation methodology, an ontology of emergency-relevant social media information types,

proposes a scale for information criticality, and releases a dataset containing fifteen test events and approximately

20,000 labeled tweets. Analysis of this dataset reveals a significant amount of actionable information on social

media during emergencies (> 10%). While this data is valuable for emergency response efforts, analysis of the

39 state-of-the-art systems demonstrate a performance gap in identifying this data. We therefore find the current

state-of-the-art is insufficient for emergency respondersí requirements, particularly for rare actionable information

for which there is little prior training data available.
 
  Address University of Glasgow, United Kingdom;New York University, USA;National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1867  
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Author (up) Rob Grace; Shane Halse; Jess Kropczynski; Andrea Tapia; Fred Fonseca pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Integrating Social Media in Emergency Dispatch via Distributed Sensemaking Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords sensemaking, emergency dispatch, social media, role play  
  Abstract Emergency dispatchers typically answer 911 calls and relay information to first responders; however, new workflows arise when social media analysts are included in emergency dispatch work. In this study we examine emergency dispatch workflows as distributed sensemaking processes performed among 911 call takers, dispatchers, and social media analysts during simulated emergency dispatch operations. In active shooter and water rescue scenarios, emergency dispatch teams including call takers, dispatchers, and social media analysts make sense of unfolding events by analyzing, aggregating, and synthesizing information provided by 911 callers and social media users during each scenario. Findings from the simulations inform design requirements for social media analysis tools that can help analysts detect, seek, and analyze information posted on social media during a crisis, and protocols for coordinating analystsí sensemaking activities with those of 911 call takers and dispatchers in reconfigured emergency dispatch workflows.  
  Address Pennsylvania State University, United States of America;University of Cincinnati, United States of America  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1897  
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Author (up) Sara Barozzi; Jose Luis Fernandez Marquez; Amudha Ravi Shankar; Barbara Pernici pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Filtering images extracted from social media in the response phase of emergency events Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords rapid mapping, floods, information extraction, filtering, crowdsourcing  
  Abstract The use of social media to support emergency operators in the first hours of the response phases can improve the

quality of the information available and awareness on ongoing emergency events. Social media contain both textual

and visual information, in the form of pictures and videos. The problem related to the use of social media posts

as a source of information during emergencies lies in the difficulty of selecting the relevant information among

a very large amount of irrelevant information. In particular, we focus on the extraction of images relevant to an

event for rapid mapping purpose. In this paper, a set of possible filters is proposed and analyzed with the goal of

selecting useful images from posts and of evaluating how precision and recall are impacted. Filtering techniques,

which include both automated and crowdsourced steps, have the goal of providing better quality posts and easy

manageable data volumes both to emergency responders and rapid mapping operators. The impact of the filters on

precision and recall in extracting relevant images is discussed in the paper in two different case studies.
 
  Address Politecnico di Milano;University of Geneva  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1881  
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Author (up) Shane Errol Halse; Rob Grace; Jess Kropczynski; Andrea Tapia pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Simulating real-time Twitter data from historical datasets Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Twitter, Simulation, Crisis Response, Social Media  
  Abstract In this paper, we will discuss a system design for simulating social media data based on historical datasets. While many datasets containing data collected from social media during crisis have become publicly available, there is a lack of tools or systems can present this data on the same timeline as it was originally posted. Through the design and use of the tool discussed in this paper, we show how historical datasets can be used for algorithm testing, such as those used in machine learning, to improve the quality of the data. In addition, the use of simulated data also has its benefits in training scenarios, which would allow participants to see real, non-fabricated social media messages in the same temporal manner as found on a social media platform. Lastly, we will discuss the positive reception and future improvements suggested by 911 Public Service Answering Point (PSAP) professionals.  
  Address PSU, United States of America;University of Cincinnati  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1898  
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Author (up) Sooji Han; Fabio Ciravegna pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Rumour Detection on Social Media for Crisis Management Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Rumours, large-scale data, event summarisation, sub-event detection, social media analysis  
  Abstract We address the problem of making sense of rumour evolution during crises and emergencies. We study how

understanding and capturing emerging rumours can benefit decision makers during such event. To this end, we

propose a two-step framework for detecting rumours during crises. In the first step, we introduce an algorithm to

identify noteworthy sub-events in real time. In the second step, we introduce a graph-based text ranking method

for summarising newsworthy sub-events while events unfold. We use temporal and content-based features to

achieve the effective and real-time response and management of crises situations. These features can improve

efficiency in the detection of key rumours in the context of a real-world application. The effectiveness of our

method is evaluated over large-scale Twitter data related to real-world crises. The results show that our framework

can efficiently and effectively capture key rumours circulated during natural and human-made disasters.
 
  Address The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1860  
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Author (up) Sophie Gerstmann; Hans Betke; Stefan Sackmann pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Towards Automated Individual Communication for Coordination of Spontaneous Volunteers Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Spontaneous volunteers, chatbot, social media, system architecture  
  Abstract In recent years, spontaneous volunteers often turned out to be a critical factor to overcome disaster situations and

avoid further damages to life and assets. These Volunteers coordinate their activities using social media and

mobile devices but are not integrated in usual command and control structures of disaster responders. The lack of

professional disaster response knowledge leads to a waste of potential workforce or even dangerous situations for

the volunteers. In this paper, a novel approach for a centralized coordination of spontaneous volunteers through

disaster response professionals while using popular communication channels esp. messaging services (e.g.

Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp) is presented. The architecture of a volunteer coordination system focusing on

automated multi-channel communication is shown and the possibilities of a universal chatbot for individual

assignment and scheduling of volunteers are discussed. The paper also provides first insights in a demonstrator

system as a practical solution.
 
  Address Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1965  
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Author (up) Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Amanda Hughes; Muhammad Imran; Linda Plotnick; Robert Power; Murray Turoff pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Requirements for Software to Support the use of Social Media in Emergency Management: A Delphi Study Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Social media, emergency management, crisis informatics, software requirements, Delphi method  
  Abstract Social Media contain a wealth of information that could improve the situational awareness of Emergency Managers during a crisis, but many barriers stand in the way. These include information overload, making it impossible to deal with the flood of raw posts, and lack of trust in unverified crowdsourced data. The purpose of this project is to build a communications bridge between emergency responders and technologists who can provide the advances needed to realize social mediaís full potential. We are employing a Delphi study survey design, which is a technique for exploring and developing consensus among a group of experts around a particular topic. Participants include emergency managers and technologists with experience in software to support the use of social media in crisis response, from many countries. The topics of the study are described and preliminary, partial results presented for Round 1 of the study, based on 33 responses.  
  Address NJIT, United States of America;Brigham Young U.;Qatar Computing Research Inst.;Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1906  
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Author (up) Steve Peterson; Keri Stephens; Hemant Purohit; Amanda Hughes pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title When Official Systems Overload: A Framework for Finding Social Media Calls for Help during Evacuations Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Disasters, social media, hurricanes, data, framework, public safety  
  Abstract During large-scale disasters it is not uncommon for Public Safety Answering Points (e.g., 9-1-1) to encounter

service disruptions or become overloaded due to call volume. As observed in the two past United States hurricane

seasons, citizens are increasingly turning to social media whether as a consequence of their inability to reach

9-1-1, or as a preferential means of communications. Relying on past research that has examined social media

use in disasters, combined with the practical knowledge of the first-hand disaster response experiences, this paper

develops a knowledge-driven framework containing parameters useful in identifying patterns of shared

information on social media when citizens need help. This effort explores the feasibility of determining

differences, similarities, common themes, and time-specific discoveries of social media calls for help associated

with hurricane evacuations. At a future date, validation of this framework will be demonstrated using datasets

from multiple disasters. The results will lead to recommendations on how the framework can be modified to make

it applicable as a generic disaster-type characterization tool.
 
  Address National Institutes of Health, United States of America;The University of Texas at Austin;George Mason University;Brigham Young University  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1928  
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Author (up) Steven Sheetz; Andrea Kavanaugh; Edward Fox; Riham Hassan; Seungwon Yang; Mohamed Magdy; Shoemaker Donald pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Information Uses and Gratifications Related to Crisis: Student Perceptions since the Egyptian Uprising Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Uses and gratifications theory; information sources; Internet; social media; structural equation modeling  
  Abstract People use diverse sources of information, e.g., newspapers, TV, Internet news, social media, and face-to-face

conversations, to make sense of crises. We apply uses and gratifications theory (UGT) and structural equation

modeling to illustrate how using internet-based information sources since the political uprisings in Egypt influence

perceptions of information satisfaction. Consistent with expectations we find that content and process gratifications

constructs combine to explain information satisfaction, while social gratifications do not significantly influence

satisfaction in the context of a crisis. This suggests that UGT is useful for evaluating the use of information

technology in a context where information is limited in quantity and reliability.
 
  Address Virginia Tech, United States of America;Microsoft;Louisiana State University;Arab Academy of Science and Technology  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1862  
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Author (up) Thomas Spielhofer; Anna Sophie Hahne; Christian Reuter; Marc-André Kaufhold; Stefka Schmid pdf  isbn
openurl 
  Title Social Media Use in Emergencies of Citizens in the United Kingdom Type Conference Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Emergencies; social media; Twitter; Facebook; representative study  
  Abstract People use social media in various ways including looking for or sharing information during crises or emergencies

(e.g. floods, storms, terrorist attacks). Few studies have focused on European citizensí perceptions, and just one

has deployed a representative sample to examine this. This article presents the results of one of the first

representative studies on this topic conducted in the United Kingdom. The study shows that around a third (34%)

have used social media during an emergency and that such use is more widespread among younger people. In

contrast, the main reasons for not using social media in an emergency include technological concerns and that the

trustworthiness of social media content is doubtful. However, there is a growing trend towards increased use. The

article deduces and explores implications of these findings, including problems potentially arising with more

citizens sharing information on social media during emergencies and expecting a response.
 
  Address Technische Universität Darmstadt, Science and Technology for Peace and Security (PEASEC), Germany;The Tavistock Institute of Human Relations (TIHR)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium  
  Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)  
  Notes Approved no