||In complex emergencies, civil and military organizations often find themselves being partners in an international effort aimed at peace keeping, humanitarian relief, and development support. Civil and military partners need to exchange information and to cooperate as required. This assumes effective and efficient Civil-Military Interaction (CMI). However, CMI research literature shows that, in practice, this is far from a reality. In particular, our research indicates that deficiencies in knowledge processes and knowledge management within international civil and military organizations contribute to the causes of ineffective and inefficient CMI. Our research aims to investigate the feasibility of developing technical solutions exploiting knowledge engineering, to support fieldworkers in overcoming these CMI problems. As a first step, this paper introduces a Conceptual Framework (CF) that captures reference models of the CMI domain. The CF has been developed to analyze CMI problems and underlying KM deficiencies. It is being illustrated, explored and validated using real-world case studies.