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Author Abbas Ganji; Tom Wilson; Sonia Saveli; Dharma Dailey; Mark Haselkorn
Title Cause and Effect: A Qualitative Analysis of Obstacles to Information Sharing During a Regional Disaster Exercise Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information Sharing; Disaster Response; Qualitative Analysis; Collaboration; Coordination
Abstract After large-scale disasters, diverse partner agencies rely heavily on an information-sharing environment that supports collaborative work. In the U.S., this occurs under the Incident Command System (ICS), a structured organizational framework for coordinated action. We explore obstacles to information sharing and coordinationobserved at a county-level Emergency Operations Center (EOC) operating under ICS during the response phase of a large-scale regional disaster exercise. Textual observations collected in situ are analyzed for both the effect/manifestation and cause/source of barriers to information sharing. Two-thirds of barriers that manifest as computational issues are not caused by technology breakdowns, and a third caused by unclear processes manifest as computational issues. Overall, obstacles to collaborative work that appear to be related to computational issues are generally attributable to non-technical causes. This indicates that resources directed at improving collaborative management of disasters by enhancing technological capabilities are likely to be misdirected.
Address University of Washington, United States of America
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T2- Command and control studies Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1848
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Author Amanda Jaber; Björn Johan Erik Johansson; Linnea Bergsten; Joeri Laere van; Peter Berggren
Title Evaluating the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Simulation games, training, Systemic Resilience Model, team resilience, assessment
Abstract This work in progress paper presents an initial evaluation of the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) conducted in a crisis response simulation project. TRAMS is designed to assess the resilience of crisis response teams. The TRAMS observation protocol uses six core resilience functions from the Systemic Resilience Model as its theoretical foundation. Three independent observers used the protocol during a pilot study and six actual simulation games. Strategies relating to three out of six core resilience functions could be identified. The observations made were distributed similarly among the observers, indicating that the components of the TRAMS protocol are stable enough to continue developing the protocol. This study describes changes made to the protocol since the original design, and describes how the strategies relating to the six core resilience functions can be identified in the simulation games.
Address Linköping University, Sweden;Skövde University, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T2- Command and control studies Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1940
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Author Andreas Lotter; Konrad Barth; Brauner Florian; Florian Steyer; Ompe Aime Mudimu; Alex Lechleuthner
Title Measurement of information flows in rescue exercises in the aftermath of the collapse of a building Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Collapsed Buildings; Information Flow; Table-Top Exercises; In-Field Exercises
Abstract Collapsed buildings are one of the most complex challenges for rescue forces. The large amount of incoming information in particular is a major challenge to handle for the involved forces. The Assessment of this information is necessary in order to be able to give reliable statements about the number of buried and missing victims. To improve the handling of the information, the authors have developed a method to measure information flow during rescue exercises after the collapse of a building. This method has been developed within VERVE, a research project subsidized by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The method has been evaluated and tested through two exercises.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3388 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-9 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1383
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Author Linda Katrine Andresen; Erik G. Nilsson
Title Finding the best devices for emergency responders in Norway – an empirical study Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 110-119
Keywords Information systems; Screen printing; Surveys; Device types; Emergency response; Local commanders; Norway; Screen sizes; Emergency services
Abstract In this paper we present the results from four empirical studies where we investigate the most appropriate devices for high-ranking emergency leaders – termed commanders in this paper – working close to the scene of incident, usually outside. The studies apply different methods including interviews, questionnaires and usability tests to investigate the technology used by commanders in the agencies today, their motivation for using new technology, as well as their needs for new devices. Three of the studies involve commanders from the police, the ambulance service and the fire and rescue agency in Norway. Devices with different screen sizes ranging from 4,3“ to 40” were used or discussed in the studies. The main conclusion from all the studies is a very clear preference for tablets. We did however identify difference between the agencies regarding the preferred size of an “ideal” tablet, as well as wishes for using more than one device.
Address University of Oslo, Norway; SINTEF ICT, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 267
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Author Anne-Marie Barthe-Delanoë; Sébastien Truptil; Nelly Olivier-Maget; Frédérick Bénaben
Title Towards an Organizational and Socio-Technical Context-Aware Adaptation of Emergency Plans Type Conference Article
Year 2018 Publication ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings – 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2018
Volume Issue Pages 212-217
Keywords Agility, context awareness, emergency plan, preparation
Abstract In France, facilities listed under environment protection regulations are required to draw up emergency plans. During a crisis situation, facing an unexpected event, these plans may be irrelevant. They have to be adapted to the current crisis situation and its observed or anticipated evolutions, using data emitted by the crisis ecosystem. But this adaptation requires lots of effort and is time-consuming. This article aims at presenting an approach to ensure the dynamic adaptation of emergency plans. We propose to identify generic configuration variables (representing interactions of physical phenomena and human factors on the facility) and to feed these configuration variables by collecting and processing data emitted by sensors, social networks, official reports, etc. Therefore, emergency plans could natively integrate agility by their ability to detect and take into account a change in the crisis situation and decision makers will be supported since the early stage of the crisis response.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Rochester Institute of Technology Place of Publication Rochester, NY (USA) Editor Kees Boersma; Brian Tomaszeski
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-0-692-12760-5 Medium
Track Command and control studies Expedition Conference ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings - 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 2101
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Author Menelaos Bakopoulos; Sofia Tsekeridou; Eri Giannaka; Zheng-Hua Tan; Ramjee Prasad
Title Command & control: Information merging, selective visualization and decision support for emergency handling Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Biometrics; Decision support systems; Flow visualization; Information management; Information systems; Local area networks; Personal digital assistants; Visualization; Command posts; Crisis management; Decision supports; First responders; Information merging; Video annotations; Wearable sensors; Merging
Abstract Emergency situations call for the timely collaboration and error free communication of first responder (FR) teams from their Command Posts (CP) and between themselves. First responder teams must form and adapt their plans and actions as a real-time critical situation unfolds. This paper presents an advanced Command Post application that manages a diversity of FR teams during an emergency. Data from biometric, fire and/or gas sensors in addition to received annotated videos from first responders on site, carrying personal digital assistants (PDAs), are simultaneously managed. The presented system provides properly configured access to and alert-dependent visualization of real time location, biometric, gas, fire and annotated video data from FRs in the field to allow for effective reaction and decision support from CP personnel. Additionally, the system forms an information management system for all necessary information to be quickly handy during emergency handling, such as FR information, critical infrastructure information, historical information, etc. This system has been validated through qualitative analysis in a field trial at the M30 tunnel in Madrid by participating end users.
Address Athens Information Technology, Greece; Aalborg University, Denmark
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 284
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Author Jane Barnett; William Wong; David Westley; Rick Adderley; Michelle Smith
Title Startle points: A proposed framework for identifying situational cues, and developing realistic emergency training scenarios Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Cognitive interview; Dynamic scenarios; Emergency scenario; Emergency training; Situation awareness; Startle points; Training simulation; Unexpected events; Decision making
Abstract Real-world crises are not prescriptive and may contain unexpected events, described here as startle points. Including these events in emergency training simulator scenarios is crucial in order to prepare for startle points that may arise in the real world. Startle points occur when individuals who assess and monitor emergency scenarios, are suddenly faced with an unexpected event, and are unsure how to proceed. This paper offers a non-empirical framework that explores how cues generated by startle points affect decision making. Future research will use the framework to explore how experts and novices experience, and then adapt to startle points, as a function of decision mode, situation awareness, and emotional arousal. The resulting data can then be used to identify cues surrounding startle points and as a consequence, create dynamic scenarios for online training simulators so that individuals can prepare and adapt to them, and transfer acquired skills to real-world emergencies.
Address Middlesex University, United Kingdom; A-E Solutions, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 287
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Author Peter Berggren; Björn J.E. Johansson; Nicoletta Baroutsi; Isabelle Turcotte; Sébastien Tremblay
Title Assessing team focused behaviors in emergency response teams using the shared priorities measure Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 130-134
Keywords Coherent scattering; Deforestation; Experiments; Information systems; Railroad cars; Method development; Microworld; Performance assessment; Shared priorities; Team behavior; Team situation awareness; Emergency services; Information Retrieval; Rails
Abstract The purpose of this work in progress paper is to report on the method development of the Shared Priorities measure to include content analysis, as a way of gaining a deeper understanding of team work in crisis/emergency response. An experiment is reported where the performance of six trained teams is compared with the performance of six non-trained teams. The experiment was performed using an emergency response microworld simulation with a forest fire scenario. Dependent measures were simulation performance, the Crew Awareness Rating Scale (CARS), and content analysis. Trained teams performed better and scored higher on measures of team behaviors.
Address Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden; Laval University, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 309
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Author Fredrik Bergstrand
Title Sensemaking in command centre contexts Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Communication; Information technology; Risk management; Activists; Command centres; Design implications; Emergency management; Fire and rescue services; Participant observations; Protest; Sensemaking; Sweden; Information systems
Abstract This paper presents descriptive accounts from the work conducted at a Swedish fire and rescue service's command centre during a high risk protest. Sensemaking has been applied as a theoretical lens on the empirical data. Two specific episodes has been selected to demonstrate how the process of sensemaking is manifested in the context of the command centre. The paper also includes implications for design suggesting how information systems for this context should be designed to better support sensemaking.
Address Department of Applied Information Technology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 311
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Author Kees Boersma; Julie Ferguson; Peter Groenewegen; Jeroen Wolbers
Title Beyond the myth of control: Toward network switching in disaster management Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 125-129
Keywords Disaster prevention; Information systems; Networks (circuits); Switching; Adaptive capacity; Citizen involvement; Command and control; Disaster management; Disaster response; Humanitarian response; Interconnected network; Management structure; Disasters
Abstract A novel, 'net-centric' approach to disaster management is challenging traditional forms of command and control, through technology-supported, self-directed networks of heterogeneous stakeholders including affected citizens. Citizen involvement in crisis response can strengthen the resilience of local communities, and improve the relevance and delivery of response, evidenced by increasingly important Web2.0-based platforms. While netcentric responses show promise as a principle, it remains unclear how networks can be integrated in shared response infrastructures. We draw on the concepts of 'programming' and 'switching' to suggest a different perspective by which to explore the potential and consequences of interconnected networks. Finally, we propose a research agenda that can help identify and understand switching points in disaster response, comparing a weakly formalized management structure, but strong in citizen involvement, with a strongly formalized management structure, but weak in citizen involvement. We thereby suggest how response organizations can relinquish their reliance on control and command approaches, increasing their adaptive capacity to capitalize on citizen-based information.
Address VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 332
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Author Art Botterell; Martin Griss
Title Toward the next generation of emergency operations systems Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Risk management; Business continuity; Common operating pictures; Contingency management; Emergency management; Emergency operations; Emergency operations centers; Incident command; Mobile command; Management information systems
Abstract For more than half a century the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) has been a key component of emergency management (EM), homeland security and business continuity practice. Changes in the technical, threat, economic and social environments are placing new pressures on the concept of the EOC in the public, private and community sectors. Investigation of the desirable attributes of a “Next Generation EOC” has led to alternative EOC roles and configurations. This paper describes emerging pressures on, and trends in, emergency and business contingency management systems, and describes a research program to explore solutions to both new and persistent design challenges.
Address Disaster Management Initiative, Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 340
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Author Bruno S. N.; Adriana S. Vivacqua; Marcos R.S. Borges
Title A Conceptual Architecture to handle the influx of information in Emergency Situations Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Emergency; Heterogeneous Information Sources; Information Integration; Collaboration; Visualization Of Information; Dashboards.
Abstract Emergency situations are characterized by their complexity and the heterogeneity of the available information. Emergency managers are frequently confronted with redundant or irrelevant information, causing the problem of information overload. Evidence of this problem was identified in an exploratory survey conducted in the Center for Integrated Command and Control of Rio de Janeiro (CICC-RJ). In this paper, we present a conceptual architecture that allows a user to handle this influx of information. From a set of available data, a manager can select those of interest, which can then be transformed and mapped into one or more views, and organized in a dashboard. The whole process is interactive, allowing the manager to redefine his/her dashboard as needed. In addition, we provide collaborative mechanisms, given that, at times, it is not possible for a single user to handle such large datasets alone.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3388 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-9 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1384
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Author Christian Uhr; Björn J E Johansson; Jonas Landgren; Martin Holmberg; Fredrik Bynander; Samuel Koelega; Jiri Trnka
Title Once upon a time in Västmanland – the power of narratives or how the “truth” unfolds Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Case Study; Choice Of Methodology; Evaluation Of Direction And Coordination
Abstract In 2014 a small fire started in a forest in central Sweden. Within a few days it developed into the largest wildfire in Sweden in the last 50 years. As the scale of the fire increased, so did the need for direction and coordination of the resources engaged in the response operation. Both official investigators and the research community have studied the challenges and come up with recommendations for improvements of the Swedish crisis management system. All authors of this paper have been involved in such efforts. This paper is a result of us trying to formulate lessons learnt based on several written reports and official discussions. The development of the narratives constructed by individuals involved in the response, investigators and researchers is analyzed. We conclude that researchers need to pay attention to their own role in this development. Maybe there is a need for a game changer on the methodological side?
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3388 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-9 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1380
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Author Daniel Auferbauer; Roman Ganhör; Hilda Tellioglu
Title Opportunistic Affiliation in Spontaneous Volunteer Management Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Crisis and disaster management, spontaneous volunteers, command and control, volunteer management
Abstract Spontaneous volunteers influence crisis and disaster relief efforts as both an effective aid and a stressing factor for emergency organisations. Managing the negative impacts of spontaneous volunteering has thus become part of command and control deliberations. In this paper, we take a closer look at integrating spontaneous volunteers into the formal response system to mitigate negative impacts.

Working with participants from formal response organisations, we gathered qualitative data regarding the management of spontaneous volunteers during the European migration crisis in 2015.

Through thematic analysis, we extracted topics to systematically describe the interaction between emergency organisations and spontaneous volunteers. As implication thereof, we propose how computer supported systems can be applied to better manage spontaneous volunteers. In our discussion, we focus on the registration process and ad hoc verification of spontaneous volunteers to better integrate them in the formal response process.
Address AIT Austrian Institute of Technology;TU Wien
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T2- Command and control studies Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1866
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Author Erik A.M. Borglund
Title The Role of Artefacts in Creating a Common Operational Picture During Large Crises Type Conference Article
Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2017
Volume Issue Pages 191-203
Keywords Artefactual multiplity; Artefacts; Common operational picture; Temporal command setting; Police operations; Staff
Abstract This paper is about the work that takes place during large police operations in different command post settings, and how artefacts are used in the collaborative process in creating a common operational picture (COP). We apply “artefactual multiplicity” as our analytical lens. An interpretative research approach has been applied in form of ethnographical field studies using observation and informal interviews as data collection techniques. The artefacts that have been studied are definable as common artefacts, i.e. artefacts that are commonly available in our work environment. Based upon the five separate studies, the artefacts studied are found to be very important as collaborative tools and many also have embedded visualization functionalities. The main contribution from this research is 1) extensive knowledge about how the artefacts are used in the establishment of the COP during large police operations, where the process of establishing the COP is, to a very large extent, dependent upon the artefacts' collaborative and multiple functions; 2) the proposal and suggestion to study the whole staff and the artefacts used by the staff as one heterogeneous unit, as a record of activities. Studies of single artefacts in isolation reduce the possibility of seeing the full multiplicity of all the artefacts used within the staff, and the complexity of the intertwined web of artefactual functions.
Address Mid Sweden University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Albi, France Editor Tina Comes, F.B., Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, eds
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Command and control studies Expedition Conference 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 2011
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Author Fabio Ciravegna; Suvodeep Mazumdar; Neil Ireson; Peter Cudd
Title Seeing through the Eyes of the Citizens during Emergencies Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Mobile Camera; Emergency Response; Control Room Technologies
Abstract Availability and access to information is critical for providing a highly effective response to an ongoing event ? however, often information reported by citizens over the phone may be unclear, inaccurate, biased or subjective, based on the context of the reporter. This can often lead to inadequate response to an emergency, which can in turn result in loss of property or worse, lives. On the other hand, excessive response to an emergency can also result in a highly expensive exercise. Our solution to address this problem is to make the citizen act as a camera for the control room by exploiting the user?s mobile camera. The system is designed to provide a live view of the citizen?s immediate surroundings, while control room personnel can provide instructions. In this paper, we introduce the system and share initial insights from a focus group evaluation conducted within a separate but closely related domain.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3388 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-9 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1387
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Author Fahd Bin Malek Newaz; Aslak Wegner Eide; Antoine Pultier
Title Supporting first responder in-field communication and navigation using head-mounted displays Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication ISCRAM 2015 Conference Proceedings ? 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2015
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords C2; Communication; Emergency Management; head-mounted display; navigation
Abstract This paper explores the added-value of using interactive head-mounted displays to support command and control of first responders during emergency response. Specifically, it describes and evaluates a prototype system that makes use of Google Glass to enable in-field receiving of information from a command center, as well as in-field navigation and video streaming. The viability and usefulness of the concept was evaluated through a set of end-user workshops and interviews. A small-scale experiment was also conducted to assess the efficiency of using head-mounted displays for in-field navigation, as compared to handheld devices. Findings from workshops and interviews suggest that head-mounted displays could be a valuable supplement to radio communication, with potential for reducing information misinterpretation, and for enhancing information quality. Results from the experiment indicate that head-mounted displays have the same level of efficiency as handheld devices when used for basic navigation tasks.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Agder (UiA) Place of Publication Kristiansand, Norway Editor L. Palen; M. Buscher; T. Comes; A. Hughes
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9788271177881 Medium
Track Command and Control studies Expedition Conference ISCRAM 2015 Conference Proceedings ? 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1208
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Author Avelino F. Gomes Filho; André L. A. Sobral; Claudio A. Passos; Arce, D.; Gustavo A. Bianco; Júlio C. Rodrigues; Jose Orlando Gomes; Paulo V. R. Carvalho
Title C2 Center dealing with the unexpected: Resilience and brittleness during FIFA confederation cup Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 100-109
Keywords Fracture mechanics; Information systems; Plasticity; C2 Center; Protests; Resilience; Rio de Janeiro; Unexpected; Brittleness
Abstract Forecast and plan response to incidents are fundamental to create a Command and Control Center (C2 Center). However, some incidents are considered chaotic and are completely understood only after happening. These unforeseen incidents pose challenges to plans of such centers and if not properly managed, may result in failures. This article describes how the Integrated C2 Center of Rio de Janeiro City (CICC-RJ) responds to violent, unexpected and improbable events, especially related to protests that took place during the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. It aims to describe from the resilience engineering point of view how the CICC-RJ function to cope with incidents, where the structure has proved to be resilient, where it holds brittleness, and to suggest possible actions to help the center to become more resilient to upcoming events.
Address UFRJ, Brazil; IEN, Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved
Call Number Serial 493
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Author Tim J. Grant
Title Combining information sharing and seeking in networked coalitions Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Commerce; Complex networks; Information systems; Military operations; Coalition; Information market; Information push; Network-enabled capabilities; Process Modeling; Information analysis
Abstract Coalitions are the rule in crisis management and military operations. Although the partners do not form part of an organizational hierarchy, they need to share information to find their place in the coalition, to prepare plans collaboratively, to synchronize their actions, to evaluate their achievements, and to negotiate changes in their relationships. Interviews of experienced military officers have shown that information sharing in coalitions is more complex than one-way information transmission. It has the characteristics of an information market in which security regulations give information a scarcity value, with both sources and recipients initiating action. The emerging literature on information markets includes few process models. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical, four-stage process model for information sharing between coalition partners in the context of Network Enabled Capabilities. The model combines information sharing and seeking, integrates intelligence collection, and supports a range of market mechanisms.
Address Koningin Wilhelminastraat 13, 3405XP Benschop, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 545
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Author Tim J. Grant; Ariën J. Van Der Wal
Title A taxonomy of market mechanisms for information sharing in crisis response coalitions Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information analysis; Information services; Information systems; Taxonomies; Coalition operations; Collaboration; Crisis management; Crisis response; Information market; Information sharing; Commerce
Abstract Information sharing is crucial in responding to and managing crises. A great variety of organizations respond to crises, ranging from international organizations, through non-governmental organizations, commercial suppliers, government ministries, and the media, to individual volunteers. At best, they collaborate to combine their respective strengths in creating synergy. At worst, they deconflict their operations so that the one does not get in the way of the other. In either case, the organizations must communicate with one another. Previous research has shown that this communication takes the form of an information market. This paper considers the possible mechanisms for information markets in humanitarian and military coalitions. While there has been work on market mechanisms in the economics literature, this needs to be adapted for the exchange of information and information services instead of physical goods and services. This paper proposes a taxonomy of market mechanisms that is tailored to information sharing within coalitions. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address Netherlands Defence Academy, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 118
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Author H. van Dijk
Title Situation Awareness in Crisis Situations: Development of a User Defined Operational Picture Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication ISCRAM 2015 Conference Proceedings ? 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2015
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Command & control; Common operational picture; situation awareness; user defined operational picture
Abstract This paper describes an effort underway to develop an operational concept and technical implementation for a User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). The purpose of the UDOP capability is to create, visualize, and share decision-focused views of the operational environment for decision-makers to support accurate situation awareness and timely decision-making. Unlike a traditional Common Operational Picture (COP), a UDOP allows the user to select what information should be included in- or excluded from the data set defining the operational picture at the source. This paper provides an overview of the UDOP capabilities, as well as a description of the initial prototype implementation in an operational setting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Agder (UiA) Place of Publication Kristiansand, Norway Editor L. Palen; M. Buscher; T. Comes; A. Hughes
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9788271177881 Medium
Track Command and Control studies Expedition Conference ISCRAM 2015 Conference Proceedings ? 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1209
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Author Jenny Marklund; Cecilia Hull Wiklund
Title Learning from C2 Situations in the Field – Identifying Lessons from a Major Forest Fire in Sweden Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lessons Learned; Crisis Management; Forest Fire; C2; Sweden
Abstract In July 2014, Sweden?s full crisis response system engaged in a major operation as a small forest fire spun out of control, turning into the largest forest fire in Sweden in modern times. A number of investigations have been undertaken to understand the course of the fire and identify lessons for future crisis management. This paper presents one approach to identifying such lessons, the lessons learned process applied by the Swedish Armed Forces. The paper also highlights some of the major crisis response lessons from the fire, the most important being the failure to learn from lessons identified after previous forest fires. Results also show that the crisis response effort was negatively affected by a poor understanding of relevant actor?s competencies and resources, as well as lack of continuity in the initial chain of command, and identifies the need for national prioritization of resources at times of major crises.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3388 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-9 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1379
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Author Johan Nordström; Björn Johan Erik Johansson
Title Supporting Inter-Organizational Learning – A Review of Post-Excercise Knowledge Sharing Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Inter-organizational learning, knowledge sharing, exercise reports, double loop learning
Abstract Inter-organisational learning from exercises and response operations is crucial for improving overall response capacity for coping with cross-domain crisis events. In order to compile and disseminate experiences and acquired knowledge in the form of lessons learned, post-exercise reports are written. This paper presents a review of 17 Swedish post-exercise reports. The review was conducted with the aim to investigate whether such reports contained enough information to support inter-organisational learning, i.e. if learning goals were stated, how the event was described, method for evaluation, conclusions, and whether recommendations for change were sufficient for supporting inter-organisational learning. It was found that most reports did not support organisational development and lacked recommendations that were useful outside the own organisation or the

context of the specific exercise scrutinised. The results indicate the need for an exercise evaluation framework for inter-organisational exercises.
Address Swedish Defence Research Agency
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T2- Command and control studies Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1858
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Author Jonas Rybing; Johan Larsson; Carl-Oscar Jonson; Erik Prytz
Title Preliminary Validation Results of DigEmergo for Surge Capacity Management Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Simulator Validation; Between Group Analysis; Command And Control; Performance Measures; Emergency Medicine; Surge Capacity
Abstract This paper presents preliminary analysis from a validation study of a novel emergency medicine command and control training and evaluation simulator: DIGEMERGO®. The simulated emergency scenario was a surge capacity event at a generic emergency department, in which the participants took on a management role as the emergency department?s coordinating head nurse. A between group validation design with medical expert and novice participants was used. Initial analysis examined three triage measures associated with surge capacity management performance: time to triage, amount of patients triaged, and triage accuracy. The results show that experts were significantly more accurate at triaging in-hospital patients, but not incoming trauma patients. No significant differences in time or number of patients triaged was found. These initial results partially indicate simulator validity, but trauma patient triage accuracy suffered from a confounding variable in the triage system used. Analysis of additional measures is undergoing to further investigate validity claims.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3388 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-9 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1386
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Author Kristine Steen-Tveit; Jaziar Radianti
Title Analysis of Common Operational Picture and Situational Awareness during Multiple Emergency Response Scenarios Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Full-scale drill, elicitation methods, situational awareness, common operational picture, information needs.
Abstract Disaster response operations require communication and coordination between agencies that seldom occurs in everyday workday situations. Furthermore, in such hybrid environments it is necessary to establish a common operational picture for the responders involved to support collaborative decision-making. The emergency responders must gain situational awareness, and this can further affect the quality of how they deal with the situation. Training in emergency situations is shown to be efficient for learning. In order to understand the complexity of working in unpredictable environments, an analysis of an audio-log from a large-scale drill was carried out. Moreover, this paper provides a definition of several categories for identifying the processes to establish situational awareness and a common operational picture among emergency responders. The analysis process revealed how the actors communicate and revealed an overall communication pattern.
Address University of Agder, Norway, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T2- Command and control studies