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Author (up) Alexander Smirnov; Nikolay Shilov; Tatiana Levashova; Alexey Kashevnik
Title Web-service network for disaster management Type Conference Article
Year 2008 Publication Proceedings of ISCRAM 2008 – 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2008
Volume Issue Pages 516-525
Keywords Decision support systems; Disaster prevention; Disasters; Information systems; Problem solving; Constraint Satisfaction; Context; Disaster response; Operational decision support; Self-organising; Web services
Abstract The paper addresses the issue of context-aware operational decision support in emergency situations. A decision support system (DSS) developed for this purpose is implemented as a network of a set of Web-services. The Web-services try to organise a service network according to context. Here the context is proposed to be modelled as a “problem model”. It specifies problems to be solved in a particular kind of emergency situation. Context is produced based on the knowledge extracted from the application domain (application ontology) and formalised by a set of constraints. The purpose of the service network is provision the DSS with contextualised information from diverse information sources and solving problems specified in the context. In the framework of context-aware operational decision support, composition of the application ontology for the disaster management domain from the Semantic Web Ontologies is discussed and a hybrid technology of context-aware operational decision support is presented. The technology is based on ontology management, context management, constraint satisfaction, and Web Services. Application of the ideas above is illustrated by an example of a decision support system for real-time resource coordination and situation awareness for logistics management in fire response operations.
Address St.Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russian Federation
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor F. Fiedrich, B. Van de Walle
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780615206974 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems for Crisis and Disaster Management Expedition Conference 5th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 959
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Author (up) Alexander Smirnov; Tatiana Levashova; Andrew Krizhanovsky; Nikolay Shilov; Alexey Kashevnik
Title Self-organizing resource network for traffic accident response Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Disaster prevention; Disasters; Highway accidents; Information services; Information systems; Network architecture; Semantics; Service oriented architecture (SOA); Context; Self organizations; Semantic similarity; Service-based; Situation modeling; Web services
Abstract Traffic accidents are a common feature of the modern life. The paper proposes an approach addressing response to traffic accidents happened in a smart environment. The idea behind the approach is to self-organize resources of the environment according to the state of the situation caused by the accident. The resources self-organize a collaborative network that comprises physical devices, software services, organizations, and persons. The purpose of the resources is to undertake joint actions for accident response. The disaster response system intended for operating in smart environments has a service-oriented architecture. Some of Web-services making up the architecture are intended to model the accident situations; others model resource functionalities or bear supporting functions. Web-services that model resource functionalities are aligned against the disaster management ontology. This alignment ensures semantic interoperability of the heterogeneous resources. The alignment operation is supported by a tool that identifies similar concepts in the ontology and Web-service descriptions using a machine-readable dictionary. Response to the traffic accident illustrates main ideas described in the paper.
Address St.Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, Russian Federation
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789163347153 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 6th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 956
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Author (up) Alexander Smirnov; Tatiana Levashova; Nikolay Shilov
Title Context-based knowledge fusion patterns in decision support system for emergency response Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 597-606
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Information systems; Context-Aware; Context-based; Decision supports; Emergency response; Internal structure; Knowledge fusion; Knowledge sources; Operational stages; Emergency services
Abstract The purpose of this paper is discovery of context-based knowledge fusion patterns. Knowledge fusion is considered as an appearance of new knowledge in consequence of processes ongoing in decision support systems. The knowledge fusion processes are considered within a system intended to support decisions on planning emergency response actions. The knowledge fusion patterns are generalized with regard to preservation of internal structures and autonomies of information and knowledge sources involved in the knowledge fusion and to knowledge fusion results. The found patterns give a general idea of knowledge fusion processes taking place at the operational stage of decision support system functioning, i.e. the stage where context-aware functions of the system come into operation. As a practical application, such patterns can support engineers with making choice of knowledge sources to be used in the systems they design.
Address St. Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation, Russian Academy of Sciences (SPIIRAS), St.-Petersburg, Russian Federation; SPIIRAS, St.-Petersburg, Russian Federation
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 960
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Author (up) Alexander Smirnov; Tatiana Levashova; Nikolay Shilov
Title Ubiquitous computing in emergency: Profile-based situation response Type Conference Article
Year 2010 Publication ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2010
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Ubiquitous computing; Emergency response; Emergency situation; Information sources; Negotiation; Negotiation protocol; Profile; Profile structure; Service; Emergency services
Abstract Ubiquitous computing opens new possibilities to various aspects of human activities. The paper proposes an approach to emergency situation response that benefits of the ubiquitous computing. The approach is based on utilizing profiles to facilitate the coordination of the activities of the emergency response operation members. The major idea behind the approach is to represent the operation members together with information sources as a network of services that can be configured via negotiation of participating parties. Such elements as profile structure, information source model and negotiation protocol are described in detail.
Address SPIIRAS, St.Petersburg, Russian Federation
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Seattle, WA Editor S. French, B. Tomaszewski, C. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 7th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 957
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Author (up) Antonio De Nicola; Maria Luisa Villani; Francesco Costantino; Andrea Falegnami; Riccardo Patriarca
Title Knowledge Fusion for Distributed Situational Awareness driven by the WAx Conceptual Framework Type Conference Article
Year 2021 Publication ISCRAM 2021 Conference Proceedings – 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2021
Volume Issue Pages 79-85
Keywords distributed situational awareness, knowledge fusion, WAx framework, crisis management, cyber-socio-technical systems
Abstract Large crisis scenarios involve several actors, acting at the blunt-end of the process, such as rescue team directors, and at the sharp-end, such as firefighters. All of them have different perspectives on the crisis situation, which could be either coherent, alternative or complementary. This heterogeneity of perceptions hinders situational awareness, which is defined as the achievement of an overall picture on the above-mentioned crisis situation. We define knowledge fusion as the process of integrating multiple knowledge entities to produce actionable knowledge, which is consistent, accurate, and useful for the purpose of the analysis. Hence, we present a conceptual modelling approach to gather and integrate knowledge related to large crisis scenarios from locally-distributed sources that can make it actionable. The approach builds on the WAx framework for cyber-socio-technical systems and aims at classifying and coping with the different knowledge entities generated by the involved operators. The conceptual outcomes of the approach are then discussed in terms of open research challenges for knowledge fusion in crisis scenarios.
Address ENEA; ENEA – CR Casaccia; Sapienza University of Rome; Sapienza University of Rome; Sapienza University of Rome
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Anouck Adrot; Rob Grace; Kathleen Moore; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-61-5 ISBN Medium
Track AI and Intelligent Systems for Crises and Risks Expedition Conference 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes antonio.denicola@enea.it Approved no
Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 2315
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Author (up) Audun Stolpe; Jo Hannay
Title On the Adaptive Delegation and Sequencing of Actions Type Conference Article
Year 2021 Publication ISCRAM 2021 Conference Proceedings – 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2021
Volume Issue Pages 28-39
Keywords Decision support, AI Planning, Delegation, Sequencing, Adaptivity, Cognitive processes
Abstract Information systems support to crisis response and management relies crucially on presenting actionable information in a manner that supports cognitive processes, and does not overwhelm them. We outline how AI Planning can be used viably to support the \emph{delegation and sequencing} of tasks. The idea is to use standard operating procedures as initial specifications of plans in terms of actors, actions and delegation rules. When expressed in the AI planning language \textit{Answer set Programming} (ASP), machine reasoning can be used in a \textit{pre-incident review} to display relevant delegation and sequencing inherent in a plan. % together with measures of goal achievement. The purpose of this is to uncover weaknesses in the initial plan and to optimize sequencing and delegation to increase the likelihood of achieving goals. Further, adaptive planning can be supported in \textit{during-incident reviews} by updating the current status, upon which ASP will then compute new alternatives. % and corresponding goal achievement measures. At this point, initial goals may no longer be viable and the explicit suggestion of prior sub-optimal goals now worth pursuing can be a game-changer under stress. The conceptual basis we lay out in terms of delegation and sequencing can be readily extended with further planning factors, such as resource requirements, role transfer and goal achievement.
Address Norwegian Computing Center; Norwegian Computing Center
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Anouck Adrot; Rob Grace; Kathleen Moore; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-61-5 ISBN Medium
Track AI and Intelligent Systems for Crises and Risks Expedition Conference 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes audun.stolpe@its.uio.no Approved no
Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 2310
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Author (up) Axel Schulz; Heiko Paulheim; Florian Probst
Title Crisis information management in the Web 3.0 age Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information management; Information systems; Risk management; World Wide Web; Crowdsourcing; Emergency management; Linked open datum; Participatory Sensing; Social media; Data handling
Abstract The effectiveness of emergency response largely depends on having a precise, up-to-date situational picture. With the World Wide Web having evolved from a small read-only text collection to a large-scale collection of socially created data accessible both to machines and humans alike, with the advent of social media and ubiquitous mobile applications, new sources of information are available. Currently, that potentially valuable information remains mostly unused by the command staff, mainly because the sheer amount of information cannot be handled efficiently. In this paper, we show an approach for turning massive amounts of unstructured citizen-generated content into relevant information supporting the command staff in making better informed decisions. We leverage Linked Open Data and crowdsourcing for processing data from social media, and we show how the combination of human intelligence in the crowd and automatic approaches for enhancing the situational picture with Linked Open Data will lead to a Web 3.0 approach for more efficient information handling in crisis management. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address Technische Universität, Darmstadt, Germany; SAP Research, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 203
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Author (up) Corine H.G. Horsch; Nanja J. J. M. Smets; Mark A. Neerincx; Raymond H. Cuijpers
Title Revealing unexpected effects of rescue robots' team-membership in a virtual environment Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 627-631
Keywords Human robot interaction; Information systems; Situation awareness; Team identification; Team performance; Teamwork; Usar; Virtual reality
Abstract In urban search and rescue (USAR) situations resources are limited and workload is high. Robots that act as team players instead of tools could help in these situations. A Virtual Reality (VR) experiment was set up to test if team performance of a human-robot team increases when the robot act as such a team player. Three robot settings were tested ranging from the robot as a tool to the robot as a team player. Unexpectedly, team performance seemed to be the best for the tool condition. Two side-effects of increasing robot's teammembership could explain this result: Mental workload increased for the humans who had to work with the team-playing robot, whereas the tendency to share information was reduced between these humans. Future research should, thus, focus on team-memberships that improve communication and reduce cognitive workload.
Address Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 594
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Author (up) Dashley Rouwendal van Schijndel; Audun Stolpe; Jo Erskine Hannay
Title Toward an AI-based external scenario event controller for crisis response simulations Type Conference Article
Year 2021 Publication ISCRAM 2021 Conference Proceedings – 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2021
Volume Issue Pages 106-117
Keywords Scenario event controller, AI Planning, Modelling and Simulation, Simulation controller
Abstract There is a need for tool support for structured planning, execution and analysis of simulation-based training for crisisresponse and management. As a central component of an architecture for such tool support, we outline the design ofan AI-based scenario event controller. The event controller is a component that uses machine reasoning to computethe next state in a scenario, given the actions performed in the corresponding simulation (execution of the scenario).Scenarios are specified in Answer Set Programming, which is a logic programming language we use for automatedplanning of training scenarios. A plan encoding in ASP adds expressivity in scenario specification and enablesmachine reasoning. For exercise managers this gives AI-based tool support for before-action and during-actionreviews to optimize learning. In line with Modelling and Simulation as as Service, our approach externalizes eventcontrol from any particular simulation platform. The scenario, and its unfolding in terms of events, is externalizedas a service. This increases interoperability and enables scenarios to be designed and modified readily and rapidlyto adapt to new training requirements.
Address University of Oslo; Norsk Regnesentral; Norsk Regnesentral
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Anouck Adrot; Rob Grace; Kathleen Moore; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-61-5 ISBN Medium
Track AI and Intelligent Systems for Crises and Risks Expedition Conference 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes d.k.rouwendal@its.uio.no Approved no
Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 2318
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Author (up) Duncan T. Wilson; Glenn I. Hawe; Graham Coates; Roger S. Crouch
Title Scheduling response operations under transport network disruptions Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 683-687
Keywords Algorithms; Decision theory; Disasters; Emergency services; Information systems; Optimization; Stochastic systems; Disaster response; Optimization algorithms; Predictive performance; Real-time information; Road transport networks; Routing; Scheduling problem; Transport networks; Scheduling
Abstract Modeling the complex decision problems faced in the coordination of disaster response as a scheduling problem to be solved using an optimization algorithm has the potential to deliver efficient and effective support to decision makers. However, much of the utility of such a model lies in its ability to accurately predict the outcome of any proposed solution. The stochastic nature of the disaster response environment can make such prediction difficult. In this paper we examine the effect of unknown disruptions to the road transport network on the utility of a disaster response scheduling model. The effects of several levels of disruption are measured empirically and the potential of using real-time information to revise model parameters, and thereby improve predictive performance, is evaluated.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1093
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Author (up) Evan A. Sultanik; Clayton Fink
Title Rapid geotagging and disambiguation of social media text via an indexed gazetteer Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Contextual information; Disambiguation; Gazetteer; Geolocations; Micro-blogging services; Twitter; Unsupervised approaches; Unsupervised techniques; Social networking (online)
Abstract Microblogging services like Twitter afford opportunities for real time determination of situation awareness during crises as people report, via their statuses, information about events on the ground. An important component of the information included in a tweet are mentions of place names that may be sites of damage, injuries, or relief efforts. Methods for extracting these place names and determining the actual location being referenced are an essential part of the suite of tools required for automated extraction of situation awareness from tweets. Extracting and disambiguating place name mentions from text have been areas of extensive research. Twitter, however, presents challenges given the 140 character restriction on status and the informal, abbreviated language that are a norm in this communication channel. Named entity recognizers, which are dependent on labeled training data, may not be useful in this medium for extracting location mentions because the typical training domains for these taggers are absent the noise found in Twitter statuses. Additionally, the contextual information that is necessary for disambiguating place names is not always present. In this paper, we demonstrate a new technique, RapidGeo, for extracting and disambiguating place names from a location specific Twitter feed using an unsupervised technique for tagging location mentions and relying on the known geographic context of the feed for disambiguation. Our location tagging technique performs much better than an off-the-shelf named entity recognizer and we achieve reasonable precision in disambiguating extracted place names. We argue that such fast, high precision, unsupervised approaches are needed when important, actionable information is required from noisy data sources such as Twitter. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address Johns Hopkins University, APL, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 212
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Author (up) Fahem Kebair; Frédéric Serin
Title Towards an intelligent system for risk prevention and emergency management Type Conference Article
Year 2008 Publication Proceedings of ISCRAM 2008 – 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2008
Volume Issue Pages 526-535
Keywords Civil defense; Decision support systems; Disasters; Information systems; Intelligent systems; Multi agent systems; Ontology; Semantics; Agent-based architecture; Dynamic environments; Emergency management; Emergency management systems; Emergency planners; Risk prevention; Semantic features; Risk management
Abstract Making a decision in a changeable and dynamic environment is an arduous task owing to the lack of information, their uncertainties and the unawareness of planners about the future evolution of incidents. The use of a decision support system is an efficient solution for this issue. Such a system can help emergency planners and responders to detect possible emergencies, as well as to suggest and evaluate possible courses of action to deal with the emergency. We are interested in our work to the modelling of a monitoring preventive and emergency management system, wherein we stress the generic aspect. In this paper we propose an agent-based architecture of this system and we describe a first step of our approach which is the modeling of information and their representation using a multiagent system.
Address Laboratoire d'Informatique de Traitement de l'Information et des Systèmes, University of le Havre, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor F. Fiedrich, B. Van de Walle
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780615206974 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems for Crisis and Disaster Management Expedition Conference 5th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 646
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Author (up) Felix Wex; Guido Schryen; Dirk Neumann
Title Operational emergency response under informational uncertainty: A fuzzy optimization model for scheduling and allocating rescue units Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Fuzzy set theory; Information systems; Monte Carlo methods; Optimization; Computational evaluation; Coordination; Decision support models; Fuzzy optimization model; Heuristic solutions; Informational uncertainty; Linguistic assessment; Operational emergency; Scheduling
Abstract Coordination deficiencies have been identified after the March 2011 earthquakes in Japan in terms of scheduling and allocation of resources, with time pressure, resource shortages, and especially informational uncertainty being main challenges. We suggest a decision support model that accounts for these challenges by drawing on fuzzy set theory and fuzzy optimization. Based on requirements from practice and the findings of our literature review, the decision model considers the following premises: incidents and rescue units are spatially distributed, rescue units possess specific capabilities, processing is non-preemptive, and informational uncertainty through linguistic assessments is predominant when on-site units vaguely report about incidents and their attributes, or system reports are not exact. We also suggest a Monte Carlo-based heuristic solution procedure and conduct a computational evaluation of different scenarios. We benchmark the results of our heuristic with results yielded through applying a greedy approach. The results indicate that using our Monte Carlo simulation to solve the decision support model inspired by fuzzy set theory can substantially reduce the overall harm. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Universität Regensburg, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 238
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Author (up) Felix Wex; Guido Schryen; Dirk Neumann
Title Intelligent decision support for centralized coordination during Emergency Response Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Intelligent systems; Optimization; Resource allocation; Allocation mechanism; Comparative analysis; Coordination; Distributed resource allocation; Emergency operations centers; Emergency response systems; Intelligent decision support; Monte-Carlo simulations; Decision support systems
Abstract Automated coordination is regarded as a novel approaches in Emergency Response Systems (ERS), and especially resource allocation has been understudied in former research. The contribution of this paper is the introduction of two variants of a novel resource allocation mechanism that provide decision support to the centralized Emergency Operations Center (EOC). Two quantitative models are computationally validated using real-time, data-driven, Monte-Carlo simulations promoting reliable propositions of distributed resource allocations and schedules. Various requirements are derived through a literature analysis. Comparative analyses attest that the Monte-Carlo approach outperforms a well-defined benchmark.
Address Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Germany; Universität Regensburg, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1077
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Author (up) Fiona McNeill; Andriana Gkaniatsou; Alan Bundy
Title Dynamic data sharing for facilitating communication during emergency responses Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 369-373
Keywords Chains; Communication; Data interpretation; Dynamic data sharing; Emergency response; Intelligent queries; Matching; Proof of concept; Query; Query answering; Information systems
Abstract This paper describes the CHAIn system, which is designed to facilitate data sharing between disparate organisations during emergency response situations by resolving mismatches in their data. It uses structured data matching to reformulate failed queries in cases where these failed because of incompatibilities between the query (derived from the source schema) and the schema of the queried datasource (the target schema). This reformulation is done by developing matches between the source schema and the target schema. These matches are then used to reformulate the query and retrieve responses relevant to those expected by the original query. Despite the growing interest in intelligent query answering, integration of data matching into query answering is novel, and allows users to successfully query datasources even if they do not know how the data in that source is organized, which is often the case during emergency responses. We describe the proof-of-concept system we have developed and an encouraging initial evaluation.
Address Heriot-Watt University, United Kingdom; University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 758
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Author (up) Gaia Trecarichi; Veronica Rizzi; Lorenzino Vaccari; Maurizio Marchese; Paolo Besana
Title Open Knowledge at work: Exploring centralized and decentralized information gathering in emergency contexts Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information management; Information systems; Agent based; Crisis management; Interaction model; Knowledge-sharing; P2P network; Process coordination; Architecture
Abstract Real-world experience teaches us that to manage emergencies, efficient crisis response coordination is crucial. ICT infrastructures are effective in supporting the people involved in such contexts, by supporting effective ways of interaction. They also should provide innovative means of communication and information management. At present, centralized architectures are mostly used for this purpose; however, alternative infrastructures based on the use of distributed information sources, are currently being explored, studied and analyzed. This paper aims at investigating the capability of a novel approach (developed within the European project OpenKnowledge1) to support both centralized and decentralized architectures for information gathering. For this purpose, we developed an agent-based e-Response simulation environment fully integrated with the OpenKnowledge infrastructure and through which existing emergency plans are modelled and simulated. Preliminary results show the OpenKnowledge capability of supporting the two afore-mentioned architectures and, under ideal assumptions, a comparable performance in both cases.
Address University of Trento, Italy; University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789163347153 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 6th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1016
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Author (up) Gerhard Wickler
Title Validating procedural knowledge in the open virtual collaboration environment Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 607-616
Keywords Information systems; Knowledge engineering; Virtual reality; Web services; Distributed knowledge; Emergency planning; Hierarchical task networks; International Planning Competitions; Large-scale emergency; Procedural knowledge; Standard operating procedures; Virtual collaboration; Emergency services
Abstract This paper describes the OpenVCE system, which is an open-source environment that integrates Web 2.0 technology and a 3D virtual world space to support collaborative work, specifically in large-scale emergency response scenarios, where the system has been evaluated. The support is achieved through procedural knowledge that is available to the system. OpenVCE supports the distributed knowledge engineering of procedural knowledge in a semi-formal framework based on a wiki. For the formal aspect it relies on a representation used in AI planning, specifically, Hierarchical Task Networks, which corresponds naturally to the way emergency response procedures are described in existing Standard Operating Procedures. Knowledge engineering is supported by domain analysis that may highlight issues with the representation. The main contribution of this paper lies in a reasonably informal description of the analysis. The procedural knowledge available to OpenVCE can be utilized in the environment through plans generated by a planner and given to the users as intelligent, distributed to-do lists. The system has been evaluated in experiments using emergency response experts, and it was shown that procedural uncertainty could be improved, despite the complex and new technologies involved. Furthermore, the support for knowledge engineering through domain analysis has been evaluated using several domains from the International Planning Competition, and it was possible to bring out some issues with these examples.
Address University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1084
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Author (up) Gerhard Wickler; George Beckett; Liangxiu Han; Sung Han Koo; Stephen Potter; Gavin Pringle; Austin Tate
Title Using simulation for decision support: Lessons learned from FireGrid Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Data acquisition; Information systems; Decision supports; Emergency responders; High-performance computing; Model-based simulations; Sensor data; Time simulations; Decision support systems
Abstract This paper describes some of the lessons learned from the FireGrid project. It starts with a brief overview of the project. The discussion of the lessons learned that follows is intended for others attempting to develop a similar system, where sensor data is used to steer a super-real time simulation in order to generate predictions that will provide decision support for emergency responders.
Address Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; EPCC, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; NeSC, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; SEE, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; AIAI, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789163347153 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 6th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1087
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Author (up) Gerhard Wickler; Stephen Potter
Title Standard Operating Procedures: Collaborative development and distributed use Type Conference Article
Year 2010 Publication ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2010
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Information systems; Open source software; Agent Framework; Artificial intelligence planning; Collaborative development; Distributed development; Open-source; Standard operating procedures; Virtual collaboration; Wiki extensions; Standardization
Abstract This paper describes a system that supports the distributed development and deployment of Standard Operating Procedures. The system is based on popular, open-source wiki software for the SOP development, and the I-X task-centric agent framework for deployment. A preliminary evaluation using an SOP for virtual collaboration is described and shows the potential of the approach.
Address AIAI, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, SC, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Seattle, WA Editor S. French, B. Tomaszewski, C. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 7th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1085
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Author (up) Gerhard Wickler; Stephen Potter; Austin Tate; Jeffrey Hansberger
Title The virtual collaboration environment: New media for crisis response Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Virtual reality; World Wide Web; Cognitive work analysis; Social media; Virtual collaboration; Virtual worlds; Web 2.0; Information systems
Abstract This paper concerns the use of new media technologies, including virtual worlds and web 2.0, for on-line collaborative activities, and specifically for the provision of expert advice about the response to large-scale crises. Internet technologies in general offer rich possibilities for interactions involving remote experts; however, the diversity, novelty and power of these technologies are such that to introduce them into problem-solving episodes without first developing a model of the nature of those episodes and the type of collaborative support they require, risks confusing and discouraging users. After a brief discussion of the nature of distributed collaboration and the implications this has for any technical support, we describe a virtual collaboration environment that has been developed to foster task-focused communities and support them through specific problem-solving episodes, and present some of the results of evaluation experiments.
Address AIAI, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom; US Army Research Laboratory, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1088
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Author (up) Glenn I. Hawe; Duncan T. Wilson; Graham Coates; Roger S. Crouch
Title STORMI: An agent-based simulation environment for evaluating responses to major incidents in the UK Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Multicore programming; Simulators; Storms; Agent based simulation; Emergency preparedness; Emergency response; Major incidents; Mass casualty incidents; Multi-core processor; Multiple program multiple datum; Work-in-progress; Emergency services
Abstract This paper describes work-in-progress regarding STORMI, an agent-based simulation environment for evaluating the response by the emergency services to hypothetical major incidents in the UK. At present, STORMI consists of two main components: a Scenario Designer and a Simulator. The Scenario Designer enables the setting up of a hypothetical multi-site mass casualty incident anywhere in the UK, along with the resources which may be considered for responding to it. This provides input to the Simulator, which through its Multiple Program Multiple Data architecture, models the agents and their environment at a higher level of detail inside incident sites than it does outside, thus focusing attention on the areas of most interest. Furthermore, the multiple programs of the Simulator execute concurrently, thus targeting multi-core processors. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 124
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Author (up) Glenn I. Hawe; Graham Coates; Duncan T. Wilson; Roger S. Crouch
Title Design decisions in the development of an agent-based simulation for large-scale emergency response Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Application programs; Information systems; Software agents; User interfaces; Virtual reality; Agent based simulation; Agent behavior; Application requirements; Design decisions; Emergency response; Geographical area; Large-scale emergency; Visual user interfaces; Emergency services
Abstract As part of ongoing research into optimizing the response to large-scale emergencies, an agent-based simulation (ABS) is being developed to evaluate different rescue plans in silico. During the development of this software, decisions regarding its design have been required in order to best satisfy the following specific application requirements: (1) the construction of a sufficiently detailed virtual environment, representing a real geographical area; (2) the programming of a wide variety of agent behaviors using a minimal amount of code; (3) the computational handling of the “large-scale” nature of the emergency; and (4) the presentation of a highly visual user interface, to encourage and facilitate use of the software by practitioners involved in the project. This paper discusses the decisions made in each of these areas, including the novel use of policy-based class design to efficiently program agents. Future developments planned for the software are also outlined.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 563
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Author (up) Graham Coates; Glenn I. Hawe; Duncan T. Wilson; Roger S. Crouch
Title Adaptive co-ordinated emergency response to rapidly evolving large-scale unprecedented events (REScUE) Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Information systems; Adaptive search method; Agent based simulation; Co-ordination; Decision supports; Emergency response; Geographical locations; Integrated frameworks; Team composition and task allocations; Emergency services
Abstract This paper presents an overview of ongoing research into the development of an integrated framework aimed at adaptive co-ordination of emergency response to dynamic, fast evolving and novel events on a large-scale. The framework consists of (i) a decision support system, supported by rapid adaptive search methods, to enable the real time development of tailored response plans including emergency responder team composition and task allocation to these teams, and (ii) an agent-based simulation of emergency response to large-scale events occurring in real geographical locations. The aim of this research is to contribute to understanding how better agent-based simulation coupled with decision support can be used to enable the effective co-ordination of emergency response, involving the collective efforts and actions of multiple agencies (ambulance services, fire brigades, police forces and emergency planning units), to rapidly evolving large-scale unprecedented events.
Address Durham University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 402
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Author (up) Guruprasad Airy; Tracy Mullen; John Yen
Title Market based adaptive resource allocation for distributed rescue teams Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Planning; Adaptive resource allocations; Combinatorial auction; Limited information; Multi agent; Multi-agent planning; Resource assignment; Resource requirements; System's performance; Resource allocation
Abstract The dynamic nature of real-world rescue scenarios (e.g., military, emergency first response, hurricane relief) requires constant reevaluation of resource assignments. New events can trigger additional resource requirements generating conflicts about how to reassign resources across tasks in an emerging crisis. Reallocation is further complicated as some resources are synergistic (i.e., helicopter and pilot) and many distributed rescue teams have limited information about other teams' status. We show how integrating a team-based multi-agent planning system with standard combinatorial auction methods to dynamically re-allocate resources can maximize overall rescue utility while providing for graceful managed degradation under conditions of extreme stress. The key innovation of our approach is that we explicitly provide a framework that incorporates the costs involved in dynamically switching resources from one task to another. We compare our system's performance against two other approaches.
Address Pennsylvania State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789163347153 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 6th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 259
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Author (up) Hagen Engelmann; Frank Fiedrich
Title DMT-EOC – A combined system for the decision support and training of EOC members Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Decision making; Decision support systems; Disaster prevention; Disasters; Human computer interaction; Information systems; Multi agent systems; User interfaces; Collapsed buildings; Decision supports; Disaster management; Earthquake disaster; Emergency operations; Naturalistic decision-making; Operation research; Programming interface; Personnel training
Abstract The first hours after a disaster are essential to minimizing the loss of life. The chance for survival in the debris of a collapsed building for example decreases considerably after 72 hours. However the available information in the first hours after a disaster is limited, uncertain and dynamically changing. A goal in the development of the Disaster Management Tool (DMT) was to support the management of this situation. Its module DMT-EOC specifically deals with problems of the members in an emergency operation centre (EOC) by providing a training environment for computer based table top exercises and assistance during earthquake disasters. The system is based on a flexible and extendible architecture that integrates different concepts and programming interfaces. It contains a simulation for training exercises and the evaluation of decisions during disaster response. A decision support implemented as a multi-agent system (MAS) combines operation research approaches and rule-base evaluation for advice giving and criticising user decisions. The user interface is based on a workflow model which mixes naturalistic with analytic decision-making. The paper gives an overview of the models behind the system components, describes their implementation, and the testing of the resulting system.
Address Institute for Technology and Management in Construction, Karlsruhe University, Karlsruhe, Germany; Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English