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Author (up) Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel
Title 17th ISCRAM Conference Proceedings Type Conference Volume
Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings � 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020
Volume Issue Pages 1-1193
Keywords
Abstract The 17th annual conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2020) was scheduled to be held in Blacksburg, Virginia from May 24th-27th, 2020. Unfortunately, due to the widespread impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, the conference organizers and the ISCRAM Board decided to postpone the conference until May 2021. Even though we could not hold the conference as originally planned, all papers accepted for presentation at ISCRAM 2020 are published in the conference proceedings presented here, and the authors of these papers will have the opportunity to present their papers at the 2021 conference. The 2021 conference will once again be hosted at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia, and it will take place during the week of May 23rd, 2021.

The theme of ISCRAM 2020 is �Bringing Disaster Resilience into Focus.� These proceedings seek to highlight resilience in Crisis and Emergency Management and to stimulate discussions that enable the design of crisis and emergency management systems that contribute to more resilient organizations and communities. We are pleased to present the accepted papers for ISCRAM 2020, which consist of excellent contributions on a wide range of topics.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-27-92 ISBN 2411-3478 Medium
Track Proceedings Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved yes
Call Number Serial 2307
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Author (up) Andrew Arnette; Christopher W. Zobel; Duygu Pamukcu
Title Post-Impact Analysis of Disaster Relief Resource Pre-Positioning After the 2013 Colorado Floods Type Conference Article
Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020
Volume Issue Pages 237-243
Keywords Disaster Operations Management; Facility Location; Humanitarian Operations
Abstract Pre-positioning of supplies is important to facilitate disaster relief operations, however it is only after a disaster event occurs that the effectiveness of the pre-positioning strategy can be properly assessed. With this in mind, this paper analyzes a risk-based pre-positioning algorithm, developed for the American Red Cross, in the context of its actual performance in the 2013 Colorado Front Range floods. The paper assesses the relative effectiveness of the pre-positioning approach with respect to historical asset placements, and it discusses changes to the model that are necessary to support such comparisons and allow for further model extensions.
Address University of Wyoming; Virginia Tech; Virginia Tech
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-27-23 ISBN 2411-3409 Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes aarnette@uwyo.edu Approved no
Call Number Serial 2224
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Author (up) Christopher W. Zobel
Title Analytically comparing disaster recovery following the 2012 derecho Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 678-682
Keywords Disasters; Electric utilities; Information systems; Appalachian; Derecho; Disaster recovery; Mid-Atlantic; Power company; Quantitative modeling; Recovery process; Work in progress; Recovery
Abstract This work in progress paper discusses analytically characterizing nonlinear recovery behavior through the context of the derecho windstorm that struck the mid-Atlantic United States in the summer of 2012. The focus is on the recovery efforts of the Appalachian Power Company, and the discussion includes a look at the need for communicating the progress of such recovery efforts to the public. Publicly available recovery data is analyzed and compared with respect to the relative behaviors exhibited by two different nonlinear recovery processes, and some of the implications for understanding the efficiency of different disaster recovery operations are discussed.
Address Virginia Tech, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Analytical Modelling and Simulation Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1164
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Author (up) Christopher W. Zobel
Title Representing the multi-dimensional nature of disaster resilience Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Decision making; Flow visualization; Information systems; Community resiliences; Disaster resiliences; Disaster situations; Operations management; Organizational system; Quantitative frameworks; Social systems; Technical dimensions; Disasters
Abstract Although quantitative analytical information systems are an important resource for supporting decision-making in disaster operations management, not all aspects of a disaster situation can be easily quantified. For example, although the concept of the disaster resilience of a community has a technical dimension within which one can measure the resistance of the infrastructure against, and the speed of its recovery from, a disaster event, it also has social, organizational, and economic dimensions within which these characteristics may be more difficult to measure. This work-in-progress paper introduces a quantitative framework within which the multi-dimensional nature of such disaster resilience can be represented in a concise manner. This can help to improve understanding of the complexities associated with the concept, and thus directly support decision-making in disaster operations planning and management.
Address Virginia Tech, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Analytical Information Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1165
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Author (up) Christopher W. Zobel
Title Comparative visualization of predicted disaster resilience Type Conference Article
Year 2010 Publication ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2010
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Decision support systems; Disaster prevention; Flow visualization; Information systems; Visualization; Comparative visualization; Critical facilities; Decision supports; Disaster planning; Disaster resiliences; Disaster situations; Resilience triangle; Strategic decision making; Disasters
Abstract The disaster resilience triangle is a simple but effective tool for illustrating the relationship between the initial impact of a disaster event and the subsequent time to recovery. This tool can also be expanded, however, to provide an analytic measure of the level of resilience exhibited by a particular entity in a given disaster situation. We build upon the previous work in this area by developing a new approach for visualizing and analyzing the tradeoffs between the two primary defining characteristics of the disaster resilience triangle. This new approach supports strategic decision making in a disaster planning environment by providing a straightforward means for directly comparing the relative predicted resilience of different critical facilities within an organization, with respect to both location and type of risk.
Address Virginia Polytechnic Institute, State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Seattle, WA Editor S. French, B. Tomaszewski, C. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Open Track Expedition Conference 7th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1166
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Author (up) Christopher W. Zobel; Milad Baghersad; Yang Zhang
Title Calling 311: evaluating the performance of municipal services after disasters Type Conference Article
Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2017
Volume Issue Pages 164-172
Keywords Resilience; Municipal Departments; 311 Service Center; Disaster; Critical Infrastructure
Abstract As part of a movement towards enabling smart cities, a growing number of urban areas in the USA, such as New York City, Boston, and Houston, have established 311 call centers to receive service requests from their citizens through a variety of platforms. In this paper, for the first time, we propose to leverage the large amount of data provided by these non-emergency service centers to help characterize their operational performance in the context of a natural disaster event. We subsequently develop a metric based on the number of open service requests, which can serve as the basis for comparing the relative performance of different departments across different disasters and in different geographic locations within a given urban area. We then test the applicability and usefulness of the approach using service request data collected from New York City's 311 service center.
Address Virginia Tech
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Albi, France Editor Tina Comes, F.B., Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, eds
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response AndManagement
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 2008
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Author (up) Christopher W. Zobel; Stanley E. Griffis; Steven A. Melnyk; John R. MacDonald
Title Characterizing disaster resistance and recoveryusing outlier detection Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Computer simulation; Information systems; Statistics; Time series analysis; Disaster resiliences; Disaster resistance; Interaction effect; Outlier Detection; Predicted Resilience; Resilient behavior; Simulation; Transient behavior; Disasters
Abstract Most definitions of disaster resilience incorporate both the capacity to resist the initial impact of a disaster and the ability to recover after it occurs. Being able to characterize and analyze resilient behavior can lead to improved understanding not only of the capabilities of a given system, but also of the effectiveness of different strategies for improving its resiliency. This paper presents an approach for quantifying the transient behavior resulting from a disaster event in a way that allows researchers to not only describe the transient response but also assess the impact of various factors (both main and interaction effects) on this response. This new approach combines simulation modeling, time series analysis, and statistical outlier detection to differentiate between disaster resistance and disaster recovery. Following the introduction of the approach, the paper provides a preliminary look at its relationship to the existing concept of predicted disaster resilience. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address Virginia Tech, United States; Michigan State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Analytical Modelling and Simulation Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 247
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Author (up) Duygu Pamukcu; Christopher W. Zobel; Andrew Arnette
Title Characterizing Social Community Structures in Emergency Shelter Planning Type Conference Article
Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020
Volume Issue Pages 228-236
Keywords Evacuation Planning; Sheltering; Simulation; Social Network; Group Behavior
Abstract During emergencies, it is often necessary to evacuate vulnerable people to safer places to reduce loss of lives and cope with human suffering. Shelters are publically available places to evacuate, especially for people who do not have any other choices. This paper overviews emergency shelter planning in disaster mitigation and preparation and discusses the need for better responding to people who need to evacuate during emergencies. Recent evacuation studies pay attention to integrating social factors into evacuation modeling for better prediction of evacuation decisions. Our goal is to address the impact of social behavior on the sheltering choices of evacuees and to explore the potential contributions of including social network characteristics in the decision-making process of authorities. We present the shelter utilization problem in South Carolina during Hurricane Florence and discuss an agent-based modeling approach that considers social community structures in modeling the shelter choice behavior of socially connected individuals.
Address Virginia Tech; Virginia Tech; University of Wyoming
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-27-22 ISBN 2411-3408 Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes duygu@vt.edu Approved no
Call Number Serial 2223
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Author (up) Gary M. Fetter; Mauro Falasca; Christopher W. Zobel; Terry R. Rakes
Title A multi-stage decision model for debris disposal operations Type Conference Article
Year 2010 Publication ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2010
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Information systems; Optimization; Stochastic programming; Clean-up operations; Debris cleanup; Decision makers; Decision modeling; Hurricane katrina; Initial resources; Multi-stage programming; Resource capacity; Debris
Abstract As shown by Hurricane Katrina, disposing of disaster-generated debris can be quite challenging. Extraordinary amounts of debris far exceeding typical annual amounts of solid waste are almost instantaneously deposited across a widespread area. Although the locations and amounts of debris can be easily summarized looking back after recovery activities have been completed, they are uncertain and difficult at best to estimate as debris operations begin to unfold. Further complicating matters is that the capacity of cleanup resources, which is dependent upon available equipment, labor, and subcontractors, can fluctuate during on-going cleanup operations. As a result, debris coordinators often modify initial resource assignments as more accurate debris estimates and more stable resource capacities become known. In this research, we develop a computer-based decision support system that incorporates a multi-stage programming model to assist decision makers with allocating debris cleanup resources immediately following a crisis event and during ongoing operations as debris volumes and resource capacities become known with increasing certainty.
Address Dept. of Business Information Technology, Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech, United States; Dept. of Information Systems and Operations Management, Sellinger School of Business, Loyola University Maryland, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Seattle, WA Editor S. French, B. Tomaszewski, C. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Open Track Expedition Conference 7th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 491
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Author (up) Josey Chacko; Loren P Rees; Christopher W. Zobel
Title Improving resource allocation for disaster operations management in a multi-hazard context Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 85-89
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Disasters; Information systems; Resource allocation; Community sustainability; Disaster response; Literature reviews; Long term planning; Multi-hazard events; Operations management; Resource allocation model; Working papers; Hazards
Abstract The initial impact of a disaster can lead to a variety of associated hazards. By taking a multi-hazard viewpoint with respect to disaster response and recovery, there is an opportunity to allocate limited resources more effectively, particularly in the context of long-term planning for community sustainability. This working paper introduces an approach for extending quantitative resource allocation models to consider multiple interrelated hazards. The discussion is motivated by a literature review of existing models and then focuses on changes necessary to take the multiplicity of hazards into consideration in the context of decision support systems for disaster operations management.
Address Virginia Tech, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Analytic Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 382
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Author (up) Mauro Falasca; Christopher W. Zobel; Deborah Cook
Title A decision support framework to assess supply chain resilience Type Conference Article
Year 2008 Publication Proceedings of ISCRAM 2008 – 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2008
Volume Issue Pages 596-605
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Disasters; Information systems; Inventory control; Decision framework; Decision support framework; Quantitative approach; Resilience; Simulation; Supply chain design; Supply chain resiliences; Supply chain systems; Supply chains
Abstract Our research is aimed at developing a quantitative approach for assessing supply chain resilience to disasters, a topic that has been discussed primarily in a qualitative manner in the literature. For this purpose, we propose a simulation-based framework that incorporates concepts of resilience into the process of supply chain design. In this context, resilience is defined as the ability of a supply chain system to reduce the probabilities of disruptions, to reduce the consequences of those disruptions, and to reduce the time to recover normal performance. The decision framework incorporates three determinants of supply chain resilience (density, complexity, and node criticality) and discusses their relationship to the occurrence of disruptions, to the impacts of those disruptions on the performance of a supply chain system and to the time needed for recovery. Different preliminary strategies for evaluating supply chain resilience to disasters are identified, and directions for future research are discussed.
Address Dept. of Business Information Technology, R.B. Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg VA, 24061, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Washington, DC Editor F. Fiedrich, B. Van de Walle
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780615206974 Medium
Track Impact of Disasters on Industry and Economic Effects Expedition Conference 5th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 481
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Author (up) Mauro Falasca; Christopher W. Zobel; Gary M. Fetter
Title An optimization model for humanitarian relief volunteer management Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Mathematical models; Optimization; Conflicting objectives; Humanitarian logistics; Humanitarian relief; Multi criteria decision making; Multicriteria optimization; Optimization modeling; Solution methodology; Workforce management; Decision making
Abstract One of the challenges of humanitarian organizations is that there exist limited decision technologies that fit their needs. It has also been pointed out that those organizations experience coordination difficulties with volunteers willing to help. The purpose of this paper is to help address those challenges through the development of a decision model to assist in the management of volunteers. While employee workforce management models have been the topic of extensive research over the past decades, no work has focused on the problem of managing humanitarian relief volunteers. In this paper, we discuss a series of principles from the field of volunteer management and develop a multi criteria optimization model to assist in the assignment of volunteers to tasks. We present an illustrative example and analyze a solution methodology where the decision maker exercises his/her preferences by trading-off conflicting objectives. Conclusions, limitations, and directions for future research are also discussed.
Address Dept. of Business Information Technology, Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech, 1007 Pamplin Hall, Blacksburg VA, 24061, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789163347153 Medium
Track Humanitarian Actions and Operations Expedition Conference 6th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 482
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Author (up) Milad Baghersad; Christopher W. Zobel; Ravi Behara
Title Evaluation of Local Government Performance after Disasters Type Conference Article
Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020
Volume Issue Pages 210-217
Keywords 311 Services, Disaster, Municipal Departments, Resilience.
Abstract Monitoring and evaluation can help organizations involved in disasters learn from their responses to prior events and improve their performance over time. Using a data set of non-emergency service requests in New York City (NYC), this paper provides a method to evaluate and compare the performance of local governments in terms of service request response times after different disaster events. In particular, the proposed method can be used to compare such performance across divisions or boroughs in a city. To illustrate this, we evaluate the performance in five of NYC's boroughs: the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island, across seven major natural disaster events from 2010 to 2012. Our analyses show that Queens and Brooklyn demonstrate better performance than the other boroughs in almost all of the seven events under consideration.
Address Florida Atlantic University; Virginia Tech; Florida Atlantic University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-27-20 ISBN 2411-3406 Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes mbaghersad@fau.edu Approved no
Call Number Serial 2221
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