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Author Jens Kersten; Jan Bongard; Friederike Klan
Title Combining Supervised and Unsupervised Learning to Detect and Semantically Aggregate Crisis-Related Twitter Content Type Conference Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication ISCRAM 2021 Conference Proceedings – 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2021
Volume Issue Pages 744-754
Keywords Information Overload Reduction, Semantic Clustering, Crisis Informatics, Twitter Stream
Abstract Twitter is an immediate and almost ubiquitous platform and therefore can be a valuable source of information during disasters. Current methods for identifying and classifying crisis-related content are often based on single tweets, i.e., already known information from the past is neglected. In this paper, the combination of tweet-wise pre-trained neural networks and unsupervised semantic clustering is proposed and investigated. The intention is to (1) enhance the generalization capability of pre-trained models, (2) to be able to handle massive amounts of stream data, (3) to reduce information overload by identifying potentially crisis-related content, and (4) to obtain a semantically aggregated data representation that allows for further automated, manual and visual analyses. Latent representations of each tweet based on pre-trained sentence embedding models are used for both, clustering and tweet classification. For a fast, robust and time-continuous processing, subsequent time periods are clustered individually according to a Chinese restaurant process. Clusters without any tweet classified as crisis-related are pruned. Data aggregation over time is ensured by merging semantically similar clusters. A comparison of our hybrid method to a similar clustering approach, as well as first quantitative and qualitative results from experiments with two different labeled data sets demonstrate the great potential for crisis-related Twitter stream analyses.
Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Data Science, Citizen Science Department; German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Data Science, Citizen Science Department; German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Data Science, Citizen Science Departmen
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Anouck Adrot; Rob Grace; Kathleen Moore; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-61-5 ISBN Medium
Track Social Media for Disaster Response and Resilience Expedition Conference 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes jens.kersten@dlr.de Approved no
Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 2369
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Author Matti Wiegmann; Jens Kersten; Friederike Klan; Martin Potthast; Benno Stein
Title Analysis of Detection Models for Disaster-Related Tweets Type Conference Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020
Volume Issue Pages 872-880
Keywords Tweet Filtering; Crisis Management; Evaluation Framework
Abstract Social media is perceived as a rich resource for disaster management and relief efforts, but the high class imbalance between disaster-related and non-disaster-related messages challenges a reliable detection. We analyze and compare the effectiveness of three state-of-the-art machine learning models for detecting disaster-related tweets. In this regard we introduce the Disaster Tweet Corpus~2020, an extended compilation of existing resources, which comprises a total of 123,166 tweets from 46~disasters covering 9~disaster types. Our findings from a large experiments series include: detection models work equally well over a broad range of disaster types when being trained for the respective type, a domain transfer across disaster types leads to unacceptable performance drops, or, similarly, type-agnostic classification models behave more robust at a lower effectiveness level. Altogether, the average misclassification rate of~3,8\% on performance-optimized detection models indicates effective classification knowledge but comes at the price of insufficient generalizability.
Address Bauhaus-Universit\“at Weimar German Aerospace Center (DLR); German Aerospace Center (DLR); German Aerospace Center (DLR); Leipzig University; Bauhaus-Universit\”at Weimar
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-27-77 ISBN 2411-3463 Medium
Track Social Media for Disaster Response and Resilie Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes matti.wiegmann@uni-weimar.de Approved no
Call Number Serial 2278
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Author Jens Kersten; Anna Kruspe; Matti Wiegmann; Friederike Klan
Title Robust filtering of crisis-related tweets Type Conference Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Filtering, Convolutional Neural Networks, Natural Disasters, Twitter, Model Transferability
Abstract Social media enables fast information exchange and status reporting during crises. Filtering is usually required to

identify the small fraction of social media stream data related to events. Since deep learning has recently shown to

be a reliable approach for filtering and analyzing Twitter messages, a Convolutional Neural Network is examined for

filtering crisis-related tweets in this work. The goal is to understand how to obtain accurate and robust filtering

models and how model accuracies tend to behave in case of new events. In contrast to other works, the application

to real data streams is also investigated. Motivated by the observation that machine learning model accuracies

highly depend on the used data, a new comprehensive and balanced compilation of existing data sets is proposed.

Experimental results with this data set provide valuable insights. Preliminary results from filtering a data stream

recorded during hurricane Florence in September 2018 confirm our results.
Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany;Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1909
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Author Anna Kruspe; Jens Kersten; Friederike Klan
Title Detecting event-related tweets by example using few-shot models Type Conference Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Social media, Twitter, Relevance, Keywords, Hashtags, Few-shot models, One-class classification
Abstract Social media sources can be helpful in crisis situations, but discovering relevant messages is not trivial. Methods

have so far focused on universal detection models for all kinds of crises or for certain crisis types (e.g. floods).

Event-specific models could implement a more focused search area, but collecting data and training new models for

a crisis that is already in progress is costly and may take too much time for a prompt response. As a compromise,

manually collecting a small amount of example messages is feasible. Few-shot models can generalize to unseen

classes with such a small handful of examples, and do not need be trained anew for each event. We show how

these models can be used to detect crisis-relevant tweets during new events with just 10 to 100 examples and

counterexamples. We also propose a new type of few-shot model that does not require counterexamples.
Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T8- Social Media in Crises and Conflicts Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1911
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