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Author (up) Duncan T. Wilson; Glenn I. Hawe; Graham Coates; Roger S. Crouch
Title Scheduling response operations under transport network disruptions Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 683-687
Keywords Algorithms; Decision theory; Disasters; Emergency services; Information systems; Optimization; Stochastic systems; Disaster response; Optimization algorithms; Predictive performance; Real-time information; Road transport networks; Routing; Scheduling problem; Transport networks; Scheduling
Abstract Modeling the complex decision problems faced in the coordination of disaster response as a scheduling problem to be solved using an optimization algorithm has the potential to deliver efficient and effective support to decision makers. However, much of the utility of such a model lies in its ability to accurately predict the outcome of any proposed solution. The stochastic nature of the disaster response environment can make such prediction difficult. In this paper we examine the effect of unknown disruptions to the road transport network on the utility of a disaster response scheduling model. The effects of several levels of disruption are measured empirically and the potential of using real-time information to revise model parameters, and thereby improve predictive performance, is evaluated.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1093
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Author (up) Duncan T. Wilson; Glenn I. Hawe; Graham Coates; Roger S. Crouch
Title Estimating the value of casualty health information to optimization-based decision support in response to major incidents Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Algorithms; Combinatorial optimization; Decision support systems; Information systems; Optimization; Accurate modeling; Computational experiment; Decision supports; Emergency response; Health informations; Optimization algorithms; Uncertain features; Work-in-progress; Emergency services
Abstract In this paper we describe a work-in-progress decision support program designed for use in the response to major incidents in the UK. The proposed program is designed for use in a continuous fashion, where the updating of its model, the search for solutions to the model through an optimization algorithm, and the issuing of these solutions are carried out concurrently. The model facilitates the inclusion of dynamic and uncertain features of emergency response. The potential of such an approach to deliver high-quality response plans through enabling more accurate modeling is evaluated through focusing on the case of casualty health information. Computational experiments show there is significant value in monitoring the dynamic and uncertain health progression of casualties and updating the model accordingly. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Track Decision Support Methods for Complex Crises Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 240
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Author (up) Glenn I. Hawe; Duncan T. Wilson; Graham Coates; Roger S. Crouch
Title STORMI: An agent-based simulation environment for evaluating responses to major incidents in the UK Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Multicore programming; Simulators; Storms; Agent based simulation; Emergency preparedness; Emergency response; Major incidents; Mass casualty incidents; Multi-core processor; Multiple program multiple datum; Work-in-progress; Emergency services
Abstract This paper describes work-in-progress regarding STORMI, an agent-based simulation environment for evaluating the response by the emergency services to hypothetical major incidents in the UK. At present, STORMI consists of two main components: a Scenario Designer and a Simulator. The Scenario Designer enables the setting up of a hypothetical multi-site mass casualty incident anywhere in the UK, along with the resources which may be considered for responding to it. This provides input to the Simulator, which through its Multiple Program Multiple Data architecture, models the agents and their environment at a higher level of detail inside incident sites than it does outside, thus focusing attention on the areas of most interest. Furthermore, the multiple programs of the Simulator execute concurrently, thus targeting multi-core processors. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 124
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Author (up) Glenn I. Hawe; Graham Coates; Duncan T. Wilson; Roger S. Crouch
Title Design decisions in the development of an agent-based simulation for large-scale emergency response Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Application programs; Information systems; Software agents; User interfaces; Virtual reality; Agent based simulation; Agent behavior; Application requirements; Design decisions; Emergency response; Geographical area; Large-scale emergency; Visual user interfaces; Emergency services
Abstract As part of ongoing research into optimizing the response to large-scale emergencies, an agent-based simulation (ABS) is being developed to evaluate different rescue plans in silico. During the development of this software, decisions regarding its design have been required in order to best satisfy the following specific application requirements: (1) the construction of a sufficiently detailed virtual environment, representing a real geographical area; (2) the programming of a wide variety of agent behaviors using a minimal amount of code; (3) the computational handling of the “large-scale” nature of the emergency; and (4) the presentation of a highly visual user interface, to encourage and facilitate use of the software by practitioners involved in the project. This paper discusses the decisions made in each of these areas, including the novel use of policy-based class design to efficiently program agents. Future developments planned for the software are also outlined.
Address School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 563
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Author (up) Graham Coates; Glenn I. Hawe; Duncan T. Wilson; Roger S. Crouch
Title Adaptive co-ordinated emergency response to rapidly evolving large-scale unprecedented events (REScUE) Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Information systems; Adaptive search method; Agent based simulation; Co-ordination; Decision supports; Emergency response; Geographical locations; Integrated frameworks; Team composition and task allocations; Emergency services
Abstract This paper presents an overview of ongoing research into the development of an integrated framework aimed at adaptive co-ordination of emergency response to dynamic, fast evolving and novel events on a large-scale. The framework consists of (i) a decision support system, supported by rapid adaptive search methods, to enable the real time development of tailored response plans including emergency responder team composition and task allocation to these teams, and (ii) an agent-based simulation of emergency response to large-scale events occurring in real geographical locations. The aim of this research is to contribute to understanding how better agent-based simulation coupled with decision support can be used to enable the effective co-ordination of emergency response, involving the collective efforts and actions of multiple agencies (ambulance services, fire brigades, police forces and emergency planning units), to rapidly evolving large-scale unprecedented events.
Address Durham University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Intelligent Systems Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 402
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Author (up) Haya Aldossary; Graham Coates
Title Multi-objective Optimization for Coordinating Emergency Resources in Multiple Mass Casualty Incidents Type Conference Article
Year 2021 Publication ISCRAM 2021 Conference Proceedings – 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2021
Volume Issue Pages 1015-1027
Keywords Co-ordination, Neighborhood Search Algorithm, Optimization, Scheduling
Abstract Effective co-ordination between resource-constrained emergency services during multiple mass casualty incidents (MCIs) plays a significant role in the response phase. In such a case, the co-ordination problem needs to be solved, namely the allocation of responders-to-incidents, responders-to-casualties, vehicles to travel to casualties at incidents and transport casualties to hospitals, and task assignment to responders and vehicles. A Neighborhood Search Algorithm (NSA) is employed to solve the co-ordination problem with the aim of reducing the suffering of casualties, with varying injuries and health classifications. An application of the NSA is enabled using a hypothetical case study of MCIs including three scenarios in a major urban area of the UK. The experiments conducted show the effectiveness of using different approaches to generate an initial response plan, and the performance of the NSA in developing a final optimized plan.
Address Newcastle University; Newcastle University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Anouck Adrot; Rob Grace; Kathleen Moore; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-61-5 ISBN Medium
Track Other Expedition Conference 18th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes h.aldossary2@newcastle.ac.uk Approved no
Call Number ISCRAM @ idladmin @ Serial 2393
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Author (up) Haya Aldossary; Graham Coates
Title A Preliminary Optimisation-based Approach to Coordinate the Response of Ambulances in Mass Casualty Incidents Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords MCIs, Optimization-based approach, Co-ordination, Emergency response.
Abstract Mass Casualty Incidents (MCIs) may occur with no notice and require a rapid response to manage the casualties and arrange their transportation to hospitals. MCIs may result in different numbers of casualties and fatalities. Further, response time can play a crucial role in reducing fatalities and protecting lives. This paper reports on a preliminary optimisation-based approach, termed MCIER, which has been developed to co-ordinate the response of ambulances to multiple MCIs. In this approach, a realistic representation of the road network is modelled for the geographical area of interest. Also, a Neighbourhood Search Algorithm (NSA) has been developed in order to find the optimum solution to the problem under consideration. A hypothetical case study of a MCI in Newcastle-upon-Tyne has been considered to investigate the effect on response time of the time of day, and day of week, on which the incident occurs.
Address Newcastle University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T1- Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1952
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Author (up) Meshal Alharbi; Graham Coates
Title Assessing Flood Recovery of Small Businesses using Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation Type Conference Article
Year 2019 Publication Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2019
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords SMEs; agent-based modelling and simulation; flooding; short-term recovery; manufacturing and retail.
Abstract In developed countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) represent the majority of all businesses, e.g. 99.9% in the UK. Given this significant proportion, any disruption to the operation of SMEs will have a negative impact on a nation?s economy. In the context of flooding, this paper reports on the use of agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) to assess SMEs immediate response and short-term recovery. In particular, it focuses on the interactions between manufacturing SMEs and mutual aid partners, and retail SMEs and companies specializing in refurbishing premises. Results show that a manufacturing SME with a mutual aid partner can reduce loss in production by approximately 6% over a 7 working day period. In relation to retail

SMEs, those with employees able to be allocated to refurbish its premises recovered faster than SMEs employing a refurbishment company, potentially one day earlier.
Address Durham University, United Kingdom;Newcastle University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Valencia, Spain Editor Franco, Z.; González, J.J.; Canós, J.H.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-84-09-10498-7 Medium
Track T1- Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM 2019)
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1920
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Author (up) Xiaoyan Zhang; Graham Coates; Sarah Dunn; Jean Hall
Title Emergency Evacuation from a Multi-floor Building using Agent-based Modeling Type Conference Article
Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020
Volume Issue Pages 188-199
Keywords Emergency Evacuation, Agent-based Modeling and Simulation, Multi-floor Building.
Abstract This paper presents an overview of the ongoing research into the development of an agent-based model to enable simulations to be performed of agents evacuating from a multi-floor building with a complex layout, including staircases. Specifically, a flow field of navigation objects is constructed pre-computation, which stores the directions and shortest distances to all exits and staircases. Using the flow field, a navigation method is proposed for agents familiar with the environment to identify and follow the shortest route to a chosen exit. Preliminary simulations have been performed to investigate the effect on evacuation time of (i) exit configurations and (ii) familiarity of agents with the building layout. In assessing the effect of exit configurations, results show that the location of the main entrance has a significant influence on evacuation time. In addition, having more exits does not necessarily lead to a shorter evacuation time. In terms of the effect of familiarity of agents, having more agents with a greater level of familiarity does not significantly reduce evacuation time in most cases.
Address Newcastle University; Newcastle University; Newcastle University; Newcastle University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 978-1-949373-27-18 ISBN 2411-3404 Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes X.Zhang110@newcastle.ac.uk Approved no
Call Number Serial 2219
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Author (up) Xiaoyan Zhang; Graham Coates; Xiaoyang Ni
Title Agent-based Modelling and Simulation for Lecture Theatre Emergency Evacuation Type Conference Article
Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2017
Volume Issue Pages 63-71
Keywords Emergency evacuation; agent-based modelling and simulation
Abstract This paper presents an overview of ongoing research into the implementation of an agent-based model aimed at providing decision support for the layout design of lecture theatres and human behavioural management in emergency evacuation. The model enables the spatial layout of lecture theatres to be configured and incorporates agent behaviours at the basic movement and individual level. In terms of individual behaviours, agents can be competitive, cooperative, climb obstacles (e.g. seating and desks) and fall down. Two cases are investigated to evaluate the effects of different exit locations in lecture theatres and competitive behaviour of agents on evacuation efficiency in multiple scenarios.
Address China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; Durham University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Albi, France Editor Tina Comes, F.B., Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, eds
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 2000
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Author (up) Xiujuan Zhao; Graham Coates; Wei Xu
Title Solving the earthquake disaster shelter location-allocation problem using optimization heuristics Type Conference Article
Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2017
Volume Issue Pages 50-62
Keywords Earthquake shelter location-allocation; multi-objective optimization; GA; MPSO
Abstract Earthquakes can cause significant disruption and devastation to populations of communities. Thus, in the event of an earthquake, it is necessary to have the right number of disaster shelters, with the appropriate capacity, in the right location in order to accommodate local communities. Mathematical models, allied with suitable optimization algorithms, have been used to determine the locations at which to construct disaster shelters and allocate the population to them. This paper compares the use of two optimization algorithms, namely a genetic algorithm and a modified particle swarm optimization, both of which have advantages and disadvantages when solving the disaster shelter location-allocation problem.
Address Beijing Normal University; Durham University
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Albi, France Editor Tina Comes, F.B., Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, eds
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1999
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