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Author Aladdin Shamoug; Stephen Cranefield; Grant Dick
Title Information Retrieval for Humanitarian Crises via a Semantically Classified Word Embedding Type Conference Article
Year 2018 Publication Proceedings of ISCRAM Asia Pacific 2018: Innovating for Resilience – 1st International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Asia Pacific. Abbreviated Journal Iscram Ap 2018
Volume Issue Pages 132-144
Keywords Ontologies, Word Embedding, Information Retrieval, Humanitarian Crisis, Humanitarian Response.
Abstract Decision-makers in humanitarian crisis need information to guide them in making critical decisions. Finding information in such environments is a challenging task. Therefore, decision-makers rely on domain experts who possess experience and knowledge from previous humanitarian crises to provide them with the information they need. In this paper, we explore the ability of the existing computing technologies to augment the capabilities of those experts and help decision-makers to make faster and better decisions. Among many computing technologies we have today, word embedding and the semantic web are able to support such augmentation of the domain expert. In this paper, we train a word embedding model using word2vec, transform words and terms from news archive to entities in domain ontology, annotate those entities with their equivalent concepts from upper ontologies, and reason about them using semantic similarity and semantic matching, to represent and retrieve knowledge, and answer questions of interest to decision-makers in humanitarian crises. The approach was evaluated by comparing the use of word embeddings with and without semantic classification for the retrieval of information about the current humanitarian crisis in Syria.
Address University of Otago; University of Otago; University of Otago
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Massey Univeristy Place of Publication Albany, Auckland, New Zealand Editor Kristin Stock; Deborah Bunker
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-0-473-45447-0 Medium
Track Data Issues for Situation/Disaster Awareness Expedition Conference ISCRAM Asia Pacific 2018: Innovating for Resilience - 1st International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Asia Pacific
Notes aladdin.shamoug@postgrad.otago.ac.nz Approved no
Call Number Serial 1676
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Author Kees Boersma; Julie Ferguson; Peter Groenewegen; Jeroen Wolbers
Title Beyond the myth of control: Toward network switching in disaster management Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 125-129
Keywords Disaster prevention; Information systems; Networks (circuits); Switching; Adaptive capacity; Citizen involvement; Command and control; Disaster management; Disaster response; Humanitarian response; Interconnected network; Management structure; Disasters
Abstract A novel, 'net-centric' approach to disaster management is challenging traditional forms of command and control, through technology-supported, self-directed networks of heterogeneous stakeholders including affected citizens. Citizen involvement in crisis response can strengthen the resilience of local communities, and improve the relevance and delivery of response, evidenced by increasingly important Web2.0-based platforms. While netcentric responses show promise as a principle, it remains unclear how networks can be integrated in shared response infrastructures. We draw on the concepts of 'programming' and 'switching' to suggest a different perspective by which to explore the potential and consequences of interconnected networks. Finally, we propose a research agenda that can help identify and understand switching points in disaster response, comparing a weakly formalized management structure, but strong in citizen involvement, with a strongly formalized management structure, but weak in citizen involvement. We thereby suggest how response organizations can relinquish their reliance on control and command approaches, increasing their adaptive capacity to capitalize on citizen-based information.
Address VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 332
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Author Tom De Groeve; Patrick Riva
Title Early flood detection and mapping for humanitarian response Type Conference Article
Year 2009 Publication ISCRAM 2009 – 6th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Boundary Spanning Initiatives and New Perspectives Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2009
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Image processing; Information systems; Mapping; Time series; Early warning; Flood detections; Flood mapping; Humanitarian response; Passive microwave remote sensing; Floods
Abstract Space-based river monitoring can provide a systematic, timely and impartial way to detect floods of humanitarian concern. This paper presents a new processing method for such data, resulting in daily flood magnitude time series for any arbitrary observation point on Earth, with lag times as short as 4h. Compared with previous work, this method uses image processing techniques and reduces the time to obtain a 6 year time series for an observation site from months to minutes, with more accurate results and global coverage. This results in a daily update of major floods in the world, with an objective measure for their magnitude, useful for early humanitarian response. Because of its full coverage, the grid-based technique also allows the automatic creation of low-resolution flood maps only hours after the satellite passes, independent of cloud coverage.
Address Joint Research Center, European Commission, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Gothenburg Editor J. Landgren, S. Jul
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789163347153 Medium
Track Human-Computer Interaction Expedition Conference 6th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 428
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Author Erica Gralla; Jarrod Goentzel; Bartel Van de Walle
Title Understanding the information needs of field-based decision-makers in humanitarian response to sudden onset disasters Type Conference Article
Year 2015 Publication ISCRAM 2015 Conference Proceedings ? 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2015
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords decision making; humanitarian response; information requirements
Abstract The development and spread of new technology and the internet has opened a new world of possibilities to gather data and create information in a crisis. However, it is not clear which information field managers require to make the best possible decisions. As a result, it is difficult for volunteers, technology developers, and others, to collect and analyze data that results in information that is accessible and actionable for decision makers. To understand the information requirements of humanitarian responders, a workshop was conducted, bringing together eighteen experienced humanitarian responders. The results of the workshop include preliminary frameworks for decisions and information requirements that are common during the initial phases of a sudden onset disaster. These frameworks will help volunteer and technical communities to understand the information field decision-makers require to make the best possible decisions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Agder (UiA) Place of Publication Kristiansand, Norway Editor L. Palen; M. Buscher; T. Comes; A. Hughes
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9788271177881 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference ISCRAM 2015 Conference Proceedings ? 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved yes
Call Number Serial 1286
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Author Satria Hutomo Jihan; Aviv Segev
Title Context ontology for humanitarian assistance in crisis response Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 526-535
Keywords Decision making; Hurricanes; Ontology; Context ontology; Crisis response; Decision makers; Humanitarian assistances; Humanitarian needs; Humanitarian response; Logic rules; Potential ability; Information systems
Abstract Massive crisis open data is not fully utilized to identify humanitarian needs because most of it is not in a structured format, thus hindering machines to interpret it automatically and process it in a short time into useful information for decision makers. To address these problems, the paper presents a method which merges ontologies and logic rules to represent the humanitarian needs and recommend appropriate humanitarian responses. The main advantage of the method is to identify humanitarian needs and to prioritize humanitarian responses automatically so that the decision makers are not overwhelmed with massive and unrelated information and can focus more on implementing the solutions. The method is implemented on real data from the Hurricane Wilma crisis. The use of the method in the hurricane Wilma crisis shows the potential abilities to identify the humanitarian needs in specific places and to prioritize humanitarian responses in real time.
Address Department of Knowledge Service Engineering, KAIST, Japan
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Humanitarian Challenges Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 634
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Author John Sabou; Simeon Videlov
Title An Analysis on the Role of Trust in Digital Humanitarian Actor Networks Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2016
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Trust; Virtual Communities; Humanitarian Response; Organisation; Collaboration
Abstract This paper explores the difficulties of collaboration between Volunteer and Technical Communities (V&TCs) and Humanitarian Response Organisations (HROs). The phenomenon of digital volunteers and their role in collecting and analyzing social media data provided by disaster affected populations has brought unprecedented opportunities and challenges to the humanitarian system. Central to these processes are the risks and vulnerabilities that these transformations might bring to existing humanitarian actors. Thus, this paper draws upon the work of Anthony Giddens regarding trust to account for the ongoing relational dynamics, and the unpacking of both it's institutional and inter-personal dimensions. The paper identifies two major approaches underlying their collaborative efforts. The first approach concerns a top-down and centralized process of developing a institutionalized forms of interfacing; while the second concerns the development of interpersonal relational infrastructure.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Place of Publication Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Editor A. Tapia; P. Antunes; V.A. Bañuls; K. Moore; J. Porto
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3422 ISBN 978-84-608-7984-43 Medium
Track Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Expedition Conference 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1362
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Author Lauren Bateman; Erica Gralla
Title Evaluating Strategies for Intra-Organizational Information Management in Humanitarian Response Type Conference Article
Year 2018 Publication ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings – 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2018
Volume Issue Pages 145-157
Keywords information management, agent based model, humanitarian response
Abstract Information management is critical in humanitarian response, yet intra-organizational information management practices have not been well-studied. This paper evaluates several strategies for intra-organizational information management. An agent-based model represents the dynamics of information-gathering and -sharing, in order to examine the impact of each strategy on (1) the time required to acquire adequate information for decision-making and (2) the amount of excess information acquired in the process. The results show that holding regular information-sharing meetings significantly reduces the time to acquire adequate information, but does not reduce information overload; however, deploying an information management specialist reduces both time required and information overload. The results support recommendations for humanitarian organizations deciding how to improve their internal information management approaches.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Rochester Institute of Technology Place of Publication Rochester, NY (USA) Editor Kees Boersma; Brian Tomaszeski
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 978-0-692-12760-5 Medium
Track Analytical Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings - 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 2096
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Author Marc van den Homberg; Jannis Visser; Maarten van der Veen
Title Unpacking Data Preparedness from a humanitarian prioritization perspective: towards an assessment framework at subnational level Type
Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2017
Volume Issue Pages 2-13
Keywords Data preparedness; humanitarian response; information requirements
Abstract All too often the collection as well as analysis of data for humanitarian response only starts once a disaster hits. This paper proposes a framework to assess Data Preparedness on five dimensions: Data Sets, Data Services and Tooling, Data Governance, Data Literacy, and Networked Organizations for Data. We demonstrate for one dimension, i.e. Data Sets, how it can be quantified. First step is to determine which Data Sets must be collected before a disaster strikes so that as many as possible decision-makers' information needs are covered. Subsequently, a Data Sets Preparedness Index can be calculated based on Completeness, Recency and Accuracy & Reliability. We tested the index for Malawi and The Philippines and show how it can be used to direct data collection and determine when data analysis for e.g. predicting severity becomes meaningful. The index can be modified for reporting on global policies such as the Sustainable Development Goals.
Address 510.global, Netherlands Red Cross
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Iscram Place of Publication Albi, France Editor Tina Comes, F.B., Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, eds
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN Medium
Track Population and Priority Needs in a Limited Access Crisis Expedition Conference 14th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1995
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Author Gisli Olafsson
Title Humanitarian response in the age of mass collaboration and networked intelligence Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Humanitarian response; Information sharing; Large-scale disasters; Mass collaboration; Mobile communication networks; Networked intelligence; Response systems; Satellite based networks; Societies and institutions
Abstract The current humanitarian system is based on institutions created during the Industrial Age. It was built when connectivity was a very scarce resource and information sharing was something that only happened during meetings. The increased resiliency of mobile communication networks and the proliferation of satellite based network connectivity have lead to information being much easier to share. At the same time the rise of social networks and the explosive growth of mobile ownership amongst the affected communities has lead to a new way of communicating. Furthermore the large institutional humanitarian response organizations are no longer the only responders, with multiple smaller organizations responding. This paper looks at the opportunities new technologies have provided in rethinking the humanitarian response system and how new approaches may address some of the key issues faced in large-scale disasters in recent years. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address NetHope Inc., United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Humanitarian Challenges Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 48
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Author Robin E. Mays; Rebecca Walton; Bridgette Savino
Title Emerging trends toward holistic disaster preparedness Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 764-769
Keywords Information systems; Disaster risk reductions; Holistic; Humanitarian response; Preparedness; Resilience; Disaster prevention
Abstract Our research reflects an emerging shift in understandings of effective preparedness practices from siloed approaches toward more holistic views. We trace a shifting perspective emerging in literature and present in the early qualitative data of current preparedness experts' interviews within an international humanitarian organization whose core mission is disaster preparedness and response. Designing effective information systems for disaster preparedness requires us to better understand the dynamic and implicit ways practitioners define effective work. Our pilot research begins to uncover preparedness experts' perspectives, with plans for the study to investigate how preparedness practitioners view, conduct, and evaluate their work at the lowest-level1. Our long-term research goal is to realize implications for the more effective design of tools and systems to support disaster preparedness.
Address Dept. of Human-Centered Design and Engineering, University of Washington, United States; Dept. of English, Utah State University, United States; School of Public Affairs, University of Washington Evans, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Planning and Foresight Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 751
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Author Aladdin Shamoug; Radmila Juric; Shamimabi Paurobally
Title Ontological reasoning as a tool for humanitarian decision making Type Conference Article
Year 2012 Publication ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2012
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Information systems; Ontology; Semantics; Humanitarian Crises; Humanitarian Response; Ontological reasoning; Reasoning; Swrl rules; Decision making
Abstract We propose an OWL/SWRL enabled ontological environment which can play a role in reporting and decision making in Humanitarian Crises (HC). We use (5WH): WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY and HOW, as the main vehicle for gathering information for decision making. We implement the semantics of (5WH) through OWL models and perform reasoning with SWRL rules, in order to support decision making and create more efficient Humanitarian Response (HR). Our case study shows the feasibility of the proposal and its outcome. © 2012 ISCRAM.
Address School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Simon Fraser University Place of Publication Vancouver, BC Editor L. Rothkrantz, J. Ristvej, Z.Franco
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780864913326 Medium
Track Track Decision Support Methods for Complex Crises Expedition Conference 9th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 204
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Author Rebecca Walton; Robin E. Mays; Mark P. Haselkorn
Title Defining fast: Factors affecting the experience of speed in humanitarian logistics Type Conference Article
Year 2011 Publication 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011 Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2011
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Decision making; Information systems; Speed; Business Process; Comparative experience; Disaster response; Humanitarian challenges; Humanitarian logistics; Humanitarian response; Rapid response; Emergency services
Abstract Speed is a central value for emergency logistics stakeholders. Emergency response literature makes a compelling case for rapid logistics processes to provide goods and services in humanitarian emergencies. However, speed is not well-defined concept. While situational demand contributes to the need for speed, an important factor is the perception of speed given the experience of the response stakeholders. Unfortunately, the literature lacks complex, situated pictures of how logistics stakeholders experience speed (i.e., what does it mean for a logistics process to be “fast”? What factors affect whether stakeholders perceive a logistics experience as fast?) To address this gap, we explored how logistics stakeholders in a large international humanitarian organization experience and perceive speed of operations. Our findings suggest that (1) the experience of speed is often comparative, not solely objective; (2) close communication between internal clients (field requestors) and service providers (logistics team) can make clients more likely to experience the logistics process as fast; and (3) feeling in control of decision-making can make both clients and service providers more likely to experience the logistics process as fast.
Address University of Washington, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM Place of Publication Lisbon Editor M.A. Santos, L. Sousa, E. Portela
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9789724922478 Medium
Track Humanitarian Challenges Expedition Conference 8th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1059
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