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Author (up) Anne Marie Barthe; Sébastien Truptil; Frédérick Bénaben
Title Agility of crisis response: Gathering and analyzing data through an event-driven platform Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 250-254
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Agility; Collaborative process; Complex event processing; Crisis response; Crisis situations; Event-driven architectures; Information concerning; Nuclear accidents; Information systems
Abstract The goal of this article is to introduce a platform (called Agility Service) that gathers and analyses data coming from both crisis response and crisis field by using the principles of Complex Event Processing. As a crisis situation is an unstable phenomenon (by nature or by effect of the applied response), the crisis response may be irrelevant after a while: lack of resources, arrival of a new stakeholder, unreached objectives, over-crisis, etc. Gathering data, analyze and aggregate it to deduce relevant information concerning the current crisis situation, and making this information available to the crisis cell to support decision making: these are the purposes of the described platform. A use case based on the Fukushima's nuclear accident is developed to illustrate the use of the developed prototype.
Address University of Toulouse – Mines Albi, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 291
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Author (up) Abdullah Konak
Title Improving network connectivity in emergency ad hoc wireless networks Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 36-44
Keywords Ad hoc networks; Artificial intelligence; Disaster prevention; Disasters; Information systems; Intelligent agents; Social networking (online); Ad hoc wireless networks; Communication infrastructure; Computational results; Decentralized approach; Flocking; Network connectivity; Reliable communication; Swarm Intelligence; Mobile ad hoc networks
Abstract Wireless Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) can to provide first responders and disaster management agencies with a reliable communication network in the event of a large-scale natural disaster that devastates majority of the existing communication infrastructure. Without requiring a fixed infrastructure, MANETs can be quickly deployed after a large-scale natural disaster or a terrorist attack. On the other hand, MANETs have dynamic topologies which could be disconnected because of the mobility of nodes. This paper presents a decentralized approach to maintain the connectivity of a MANET using autonomous, intelligent agents. Concepts from the social network analysis along with flocking algorithms are utilized to guide the deployment decision of agents. Unlike a basic flocking algorithm where all nodes have the same importance, network metrics are used to quantify the relative importance of nodes. Computational results are presented to demonstrate the effect of various local agent behaviors on the global network connectivity.
Address Penn State Berks, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Analytic Modeling and Simulation Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 659
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Author (up) Adam Flizikowski; Witold Holubowicz; Anna Stachowicz; Laura Hokkanen; Taina Kurki; Nina Päivinen; Thomas Delavallade
Title Social media in crisis management – The iSAR+ project survey Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 707-711
Keywords Disaster prevention; Information systems; Mobile telecommunication systems; Risk management; Citizens; Crisis management; Disaster relief; Social media; User requirements; Surveys
Abstract Social media together with still growing social media communities has become a powerful and promising solution in crisis and emergency management. Previous crisis events have proved that social media and mobile technologies used by citizens (widely) and public services (to some extent) have contributed to the post-crisis relief efforts. The iSAR+ EU FP7 project aims at providing solutions empowering citizens and PPDR (Public Protection and Disaster Relief) organizations in online and mobile communications for the purpose of crisis management especially in search and rescue operations. This paper presents the results of survey aiming at identification of preliminary end-user requirements in the close interworking with end-users across Europe.
Address University of Technology and Life Sciences Poland, Poland; ITTI Ltd., Poland; Emergency Services College, Finland; University of Eastern Finland, Finland; Thales, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 499
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Author (up) Aibek Musaev; De Wang; Calton Pu
Title LITMUS: Landslide detection by integrating multiple sources Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 677-686
Keywords Bayesian networks; Disasters; Hazards; Information systems; Integration; Landslides; Nasa; Rain; Rain gages; Landslide detection; Litmus; Multi-source integrations; Physical sensors; Social sensors; Data integration
Abstract Disasters often lead to other kinds of disasters, forming multi-hazards such as landslides, which may be caused by earthquakes, rainfalls, water erosion, among other reasons. Effective detection and management of multihazards cannot rely only on one information source. In this paper, we evaluate a landslide detection system LITMUS, which combines multiple physical sensors and social media to handle the inherent varied origins and composition of multi-hazards. LITMUS integrates near real-time data from USGS seismic network, NASA TRMM rainfall network, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram. The landslide detection process consists of several stages of social media filtering and integration with physical sensor data, with a final ranking of relevance by integrated signal strength. Applying LITMUS to data collected in October 2013, we analyzed and filtered 34.5k tweets, 2.5k video descriptions and 1.6k image captions containing landslide keywords followed by integration with physical sources based on a Bayesian model strategy. It resulted in detection of all 11 landslides reported by USGS and 31 more landslides unreported by USGS. An illustrative example is provided to demonstrate how LITMUS' functionality can be used to determine landslides related to the recent Typhoon Haiyan.
Address Georgia Institute of Technology, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 801
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Author (up) Amanda L. Hughes
Title Participatory design for the social media needs of emergency public information officers Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 727-736
Keywords Information systems; Risk management; Crisis informatics; Design activity; Design recommendations; Emergency management; Emergency public informations; Participatory design; Social media; Work practices; Design
Abstract This paper describes the design, execution, and results of a participatory design workshop with emergency public information officers (PIOs). During the workshop, PIOs and researchers explored ideas and designs for supporting the social media needs of PIO work. Results indicate that PIO perceptions of social media have changed as they have learned to incorporate activities of the public into their work, yet they still struggle with issues of trust and liability. Based on workshop design activities, the paper offers a set of design recommendations for supporting the social media needs of PIO work practice such as the ability to monitor, document, and report social media activity.
Address Computer Science, Utah State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 603
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Author (up) Amro Al-Akkad; Christian Raffelsberger
Title How do i get this app? A discourse on distributing mobile applications despite disrupted infrastructure Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 565-569
Keywords Disasters; Information systems; Internet; Smartphones; Application stores; Cloud services; Deployment; Deployment mechanisms; Disrupted infrastructures; Mobile applications; Mobile operating systems; Software distributions; Mobile computing
Abstract This paper aims to lead a discourse on distributing mobile applications while having no access to cloud services. While in daily life people acquire applications via application stores, the access to those stores can be severely hampered in disasters. Instead of wishful thinking, i.e. hoping that people or manufactures would pre-install an (emergency) app before a disaster, we have started to investigate into Internet-less deployment mechanisms. We discuss five potential approaches of deploying apps in an ad-hoc fashion. Each approach is assessed against six criteria, while taking a stance that the smartphone is the minimally required deployment platform. This paper concludes with the observation that current mobile operating system providers do not provide “Internet-less” deployment mechanisms, although platforms as Android allow for this. This said, we hope that this contribution can spark further interest into the discussed problematic.
Address Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT), Sankt Augustin, Germany; Institute of Information Technology, Lakeside Labs, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Practitioner Cases and Practitioner-Centered Research Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 261
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Author (up) Amro Al-Akkad; Christian Raffelsberger; Alexander Boden; Leonardo Ramirez; Zimmermann, A.
Title Tweeting 'when online is off'? Opportunistically creating mobile ad-hoc networks in response to disrupted infrastructure Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 662-671
Keywords Information systems; Peer to peer networks; Smartphones; Telecommunication networks; Disruptions; Infrastructure; Isolated islands; Mobile adhoc network (MANETs); Network infrastructure; Opportunistic communications; Peer-to-peer fashion; Two ways; Mobile ad hoc networks
Abstract In this paper, we present a system that enables people to post and receive tweets despite disruptions of existing network infrastructure. Our system opportunistically deploys mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) based on Wi-Fi in which people can communicate with each other in a peer-to-peer fashion. A MANET per se constitutes an isolated island, but as people carry devices around that can join other MANETs, eventually people can transport previously collected data to the online world. Compared to other systems that aim to enable communication in crisis, our system differs in two ways: it does not rely on existing network infrastructure, and it exploits established protocols and standards allowing it to run on off-the-shelf, commercially available smartphones. We evaluated our prototype with a group of students and practitioners. Overall, we received positive feedback on the potential of our technology, but also were pointed to limitations requiring future work.
Address Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FIT), Sankt Augustin, Germany; Institute of Information Technology, Lakeside Labs, Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt, Austria; Fraunhofer Headquarters, Berlin, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 262
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Author (up) Ana C. Calderon; Joanne Hinds; Peter Johnson
Title IntCris: A tool for enhanced communication and collective decision-making during crises Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 205-214
Keywords Computational grammars; Disasters; Hurricanes; Information systems; Autonomous systems; Collaborative technologies; Collective decision-making; Collective intelligences; Decision making process; Emergency response; Hurricane katrina; Large-scale disasters; Decision making
Abstract Responding to a large-scale disaster such as an earthquake or hurricane is a collective problem. Human agents are increasingly collaborating with non-human agents (autonomous systems) in attempt to respond to a disaster. IntCris is a prototype intended to bring together interaction for human and non-human agents to aid the decision-making process by focusing on how to facilitate the “correct information to the correct agent” problem as well as encouraging new and agile behaviour. We focus on three categories of information: command, report and personal with a formal grammar to accompany the implementation. The requirements for the software were inspired by real life case studies from Hurricane Katrina, the Fukoshima Nuclear Disaster and Hurricane Sandy. The contribution of this work is to advance technology that brings together HAS (human and autonomous system interaction), in addition to enhancing collective intelligence.
Address University of Bath, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 361
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Author (up) Andrea H. Tapia; Nicolas LaLone; Elizabeth MacDonald; Reid Priedhorsky; Hall Hall
Title Crowdsourcing rare events: Using curiosity to draw participants into science and early warning systems Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 135-144
Keywords Information systems; Observatories; Satellite observatories; Aurora; Citizen science; Early Warning System; Space weather; Twitter; Alarm systems
Abstract This research presents a centralized boundary object website and mobile app focused on allowing participants to participate in developing an early warning system through space weather and the beauty of the aurora borealis. Because of the beauty and majesty of auroral activity, people will seek information about when and where these unpredictable events occur. This activity, commonly referred to as nowcasting, can be combined with scientific data collected from observatories and satellites and serve as an early warning system with potentially far greater accuracy and timeliness than the current state of the art. We believe that long-term engagement with a citizen science tool will help bridge the many social worlds surrounding the aurora borealis and lead to the development of an early warning system that may correlate the visibility of the northern lights to violent space weather. We hope this will lead to other real time crowdsourced early warning systems in the future.
Address Penn State University, United States; NASA, GSFC, United States; LANL, United States; Science Education Solutions, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Community Engagement in Crisis Informatics Research Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 994
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Author (up) Andrea H. Tapia; Nicolas LaLone; Hyun-Woo Kim
Title Run amok: Group crowd participation in identifying the bomb and bomber from the Boston marathon bombing Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 265-274
Keywords Information systems; Social networking (online); Crowdsourcing; Ethical participation; First responders; Social responsibilities; Twitter; Emergency services
Abstract In this paper we tell a version of the story of the bombing of the Boston Marathon. At first, two online groups gathered images, video and textual information concerning the bombing of the Boston Marathon and shared these with the FBI and amongst themselves. Secondly, these groups then created mechanisms to conduct their own investigation into the identities of the perpetrators. Finally, the larger national media followed the results of these online group investigations and reported these as fact to a national audience. We choose Twitter as our data repository and conducted quantitative analyses of tweets sent during the Boston Bombing. The implications for not incorporating public crowd participation within the standard operating procedures of emergency services may result in either a loss of public confidence in the slow-moving nature of official response to uncontrollable, dangerous and irresponsible public and media participation that exacerbates the negative effects of any disaster.
Address Penn State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Ethical, Legal and Social Issues of IT Supported Emergency Response Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 992
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Author (up) Angel Ruiz-Zafra; Ana-Gabriela Núñez; Carmen Penadés; José H. Canós-Cerdá; Marcos R. S. Borges
Title SUCRE: Supporting users, controllers and responders in emergencies Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 255-259
Keywords Information systems; Mobile devices; Web services; Citizens; Command and control centers; Contextual information; Emergency response; Information infrastructures; Mobile information systems; Responders; Situational awareness; Emergency services
Abstract We use the term “Personal Safety Assistants” (PSAs) to refer to a family of mobile information systems that intend to reduce the risks of both citizens and responders in emergency responses. Using their mobile devices, they can access to personalized views of the emergency plans including context-aware evacuation instructions or real time guidance to specific locations for rescue operations, among others. Additionally, both responders and citizens act as context sources sending fresh information (e.g. pictures of damaged areas) to the command and control center, increasing situational awareness. In this paper, we show how the SUCRE infrastructure collects and processes contextual information to improve the information infrastructure during responses. We describe the current status of the system and outline the incoming enhancements.
Address MYDASS, LSI, University of Granada, Spain; ISSI-DSIC, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain; GRECO, PPGI, Universidade Federal Do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 898
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Author (up) Anja Van Der Hulst; Rudy Boonekamp; Marc Van Den Homberg
Title Field-testing a comprehensive approach simulation model Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 575-584
Keywords Information systems; Ca simulations; Comprehensive approach; Humanitarian crisis; Learning effects; Perceived realisms; Serious gaming; Simulation; Simulation model; Computer simulation
Abstract This paper describes the field tests of a simulation based game aiming at raising awareness and creating a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the comprehensive approach (CA). The setting of this game is that of a failed state where an UN intervention takes place after massive conflict that requires a CA to stabilize the situation. That is, the civil and military actors need to collaborate effectively, taking into account their respective strengths, mandates and roles. Underlying the game is the Go4it CA simulation Model (GCAM2.0). GCAM2.0 was extensively field-tested in eight sessions with about 16 persons each, aiming at assessment of the perceived realism and learning effects. It was found to provide a sufficiently authentic experience to obtain awareness of the CA in novices. With regard to improving the deeper understanding of the dynamics and complexity of the CA, in a cooperation-oriented setting only deeper learning can be reached.
Address TNO, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Serious Games for Crisis Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1040
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Author (up) Annemijn F. Van Gorp
Title Integration of volunteer and technical communities into the humanitarian aid sector: Barriers to collaboration Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 622-631
Keywords Information systems; Expert networks; Interorganizational collaboration; Social media; Software platforms; Supporting technology; Technical community; Societies and institutions
Abstract Volunteer and Technical Communities (V&TCs) with expertise in the collection, analysis and presentation of data and the development of supporting technologies, have potential to inform humanitarian aid organizations and help increase the efficiency of their operations. This study analyzes the role of V&TCs during recent response efforts and identifies a number of challenges of organizational nature that need to be overcome in order for aid organizations to harness the potential of V&TCs. The study finds that V&TCs can broadly be categorized into software platform development communities, mapping collaborations, expert networks and data aggregators. Evidence of collaboration with aid organizations however remains limited, suggesting a number of barriers need to be overcome, including (1) limited resources; (2) the management of volunteers; (3) different levels of engagement; (4) level of commitment by V&TCs; (5) different ways of working; and (6) aid organizations' limited knowledge about V&TCs' expertise.
Address Hague University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1042
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Author (up) Avelino F. Gomes Filho; André L. A. Sobral; Claudio A. Passos; Arce, D.; Gustavo A. Bianco; Júlio C. Rodrigues; Jose Orlando Gomes; Paulo V. R. Carvalho
Title C2 Center dealing with the unexpected: Resilience and brittleness during FIFA confederation cup Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 100-109
Keywords Fracture mechanics; Information systems; Plasticity; C2 Center; Protests; Resilience; Rio de Janeiro; Unexpected; Brittleness
Abstract Forecast and plan response to incidents are fundamental to create a Command and Control Center (C2 Center). However, some incidents are considered chaotic and are completely understood only after happening. These unforeseen incidents pose challenges to plans of such centers and if not properly managed, may result in failures. This article describes how the Integrated C2 Center of Rio de Janeiro City (CICC-RJ) responds to violent, unexpected and improbable events, especially related to protests that took place during the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. It aims to describe from the resilience engineering point of view how the CICC-RJ function to cope with incidents, where the structure has proved to be resilient, where it holds brittleness, and to suggest possible actions to help the center to become more resilient to upcoming events.
Address UFRJ, Brazil; IEN, Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Command and Control Studies Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved
Call Number Serial 493
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Author (up) Benjamin Herfort; João Porto De Albuquerque; Svend-Jonas Schelhorn; Alexander Zipf
Title Does the spatiotemporal distribution of tweets match the spatiotemporal distribution of flood phenomena? A study about the River Elbe Flood in June 2013 Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 747-751
Keywords Catchments; Data mining; Information systems; Social networking (online); Spatial distribution; Water levels; Crisis management; Digital elevation model; Geographical features; Situational awareness; Social media; Social media platforms; Spatiotemporal distributions; Twitter; Floods
Abstract In this paper we present a new approach to enhance information extraction from social media that relies upon the geographical relations between twitter data and flood phenomena. We use specific geographical features like hydrological data and digital elevation models to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution of georeferenced twitter messages. This approach is applied to examine the River Elbe Flood in Germany in June 2013. Although recent research has shown that social media platforms like Twitter can be complementary information sources for achieving situation awareness, previous work is mostly concentrated on the classification and analysis of tweets without resorting to existing data related to the disaster, e.g. catchment borders or sensor data about river levels. Our results show that our approach based on geographical relations can help to manage the high volume and velocity of social media messages and thus can be valuable for both crisis response and preventive flood monitoring.
Address GIScience Department, Heidelberg University, Germany; Dept. of Computer Systems/ICMC, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 572
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Author (up) Caroline Rizza; Ângela Guimarães Pereira
Title Building a resilient community through social network: Ethical considerations about the 2011 Genoa floods Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 289-293
Keywords Disasters; Information systems; Philosophical aspects; Social networking (online); Crisis; Ethics of care; Resilience building framework; Resilient community; Social media; Floods
Abstract This paper considers the role of social media in the response to the flooding of 2011 in Genoa (Italy), caused by flash floods during torrential rainfall. Volunteer students created a Facebook page to communicate with citizens and organize support and rescue activities. In this paper, we first look at the story of the 2011 Genoa floods from the point of view of the news media to gain insights into the imaginaries behind the use of social media in situations of natural disaster. Second, we look at a communication partnership between citizenry and public authorities for its value in building resilience to disaster among communities. Ethical and social dimensions of these partnerships are analysed.
Address Telecom ParisTech, Institut Mines Telecom, France; European Commission, JRC, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Ethical, Legal and Social Issues of IT Supported Emergency Response Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 880
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Author (up) Catherine Easton
Title The digital divide, inclusion and access for disabled people in IT supported emergency response systems: A UK and EU-based analysis Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 275-278
Keywords Europium; Hardware; Digital divide; Disability; Emergency response; Emergency response systems; Emergency situation; Emergency system; Theoretical approach; Uk; Information systems
Abstract This short insights paper examines IT Supported Emergency Response systems from the perspective of the digital divide and access for disabled people. It is argued that inclusive design is often overlooked in the development of emergency systems and this can lead to increased marginalisation of certain societal groups, such as disabled people and older people. Given the importance of equality of provision in relation to emergency responses there is a need to examine accessibility policy in this area to determine whether it enables the equal participation of all. This is important both in relation to the ability to access key information in an emergency situation and to participate in crowdsourced data generation to help in the targeting of resources, both at the time of an emergency and in subsequent planning. This insights paper takes both a practical and theoretical approach and focuses upon key policies emanating from the EU and UK.
Address Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Ethical, Legal and Social Issues of IT Supported Emergency Response Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 467
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Author (up) Christoph Aubrecht; Klaus Steinnocher; Hermann Huber
Title DynaPop – Population distribution dynamics as basis for social impact evaluation in crisis management Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 314-318
Keywords Information systems; Population distribution; Population dynamics; Risk assessment; Activity patterns; Crisis management; Evacuation planning; Population distribution patterns; Population dynamics models; Population exposure; Spatial disaggregation; Spatio-temporal models; Economic and social effects
Abstract In this paper ongoing developments regarding the conceptual setup and subsequent implementation logic of a seamless spatio-temporal population dynamics model are presented. The DynaPop model aims at serving as basic input for social impact evaluation in crisis management. In addition to providing the starting point for assessing population exposure dynamics, i.e. the location and number of affected people at different stages during an event, knowledge of spatio-temporal population distribution patterns is also considered crucial for a set of other related aspects in disaster risk and crisis management including evacuation planning and casualty assessment. DynaPop is implemented via a gridded spatial disaggregation approach and integrates previous efforts on spatio-temporal modeling that account for various aspects of population dynamics such as human mobility and activity patterns that are particularly relevant in picturing the highly dynamic daytime situation.
Address AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Energy Department, Austria; AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, Safety and Security Department, Austria
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Geographic Information Science Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 279
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Author (up) Christopher E. Oxendine; Emily Schnebele; Guido Cervone; Nigel Waters
Title Fusing non-authoritative data to improve situational awareness in emergencies Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 762-766
Keywords Damage detection; Earth (planet); Damage assessments; Emergency; Emergency evacuation; Emergency operations; Evacuation; Non-authoritative data; Situational awareness; Spatio-temporal data; Information systems
Abstract In order to coordinate emergency operations and evacuations, it is vital to accurately assess damage to people, property, and the environment. For decades remote sensing has been used to observe the Earth from air, space and ground based sensors. These sensors collect massive amounts of dynamic and geographically distributed spatiotemporal data every day. However, despite the immense quantity of data available, gaps are often present due to the specific limitations of the sensors or their carrier platforms. This article illustrates how nonauthoritative data such as social media, news, tweets, and mobile phone data can be used to fill in these gaps. Two case studies are presented which employ non-authoritative data to fill in the gaps for improved situational awareness during damage assessments and emergency evacuations.
Address Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, United States Military Academy, United States; Department of Geography and GeoInformation Science, George Mason University, United States; Department of Geography, Penn State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 825
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Author (up) Cornelia Caragea; Anna Squicciarini; Sam Stehle; Kishore Neppalli; Andrea H. Tapia
Title Mapping moods: Geo-mapped sentiment analysis during hurricane sandy Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 642-651
Keywords Data mining; Disasters; Hurricanes; Information systems; Disaster-related geo-tagged tweets; Online reviews; Online social networkings; Sentiment analysis; Sentiment classification; Social networking sites; Social networking (online)
Abstract Sentiment analysis has been widely researched in the domain of online review sites with the aim of generating summarized opinions of product users about different aspects of the products. However, there has been little work focusing on identifying the polarity of sentiments expressed by users during disaster events. Identifying sentiments expressed by users in an online social networking site can help understand the dynamics of the network, e.g., the main users' concerns, panics, and the emotional impacts of interactions among members. Data produced through social networking sites is seen as ubiquitous, rapid and accessible, and it is believed to empower average citizens to become more situationally aware during disasters and coordinate to help themselves. In this work, we perform sentiment classification of user posts in Twitter during the Hurricane Sandy and visualize these sentiments on a geographical map centered around the hurricane. We show how users' sentiments change according not only to users' locations, but also based on the distance from the disaster.
Address Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX-76203, United States; Information Sciences and Technology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA-16801, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Social Media in Crisis Response and Management Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 372
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Author (up) Craig E. Kuziemsky; Ahsan Hadi; Tracey L. O'Sullivan; Daniel E. Lane; Wayne Corneil
Title An ontology for contextual information system design Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 165-169
Keywords Design; Disaster prevention; Disasters; Information systems; Systems analysis; Collaboration; Community engagement; Context; Contextual information systems; Disaster management; IS design; Think aloud; Think aloud methods; Human resource management
Abstract Collaborative teamwork is becoming more common in several domains including healthcare and disaster management. While collaborative teamwork can benefit from information system (IS) support, designing IS models to support collaboration is a significant challenge owing to the variations in tasks and people that must be supported, and the different contexts within which collaboration takes place. Collaborative teamwork can vary greatly because of context, which is the integration of diverse, dynamic, and heterogeneous needs for groups to achieve a specific goal. However in the literature there has been limited emphasis on how contextual underpinnings can be incorporated into IS design. This paper uses a case study of the design of a user-driven prototype disaster management IS. We used the think aloud method to capture participant thoughts while interacting with the IS prototype. The think aloud data was analyzed and used to develop an ontology of contextual considerations to support IS design.
Address Telfer School of Management, University of Ottawa, Canada; Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Canada; Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9780692211946 Medium
Track Community Engagement in Crisis Informatics Research Expedition Conference 11th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 667
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Author (up) Daniel Link; Kenny Meesters; Bernd Hellingrath; Bartel A. Van De Walle
Title Reference task-based design of crisis management games Type Conference Article
Year 2014 Publication ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2014
Volume Issue Pages 592-596
Keywords Disaster prevention; Disasters; Information systems; Personnel training; Disaster management; Evaluation; Game design; Humanitarian logistics; Information anagement; Serious games; Design
Abstract Serious games are an effective tool for giving players a hands-on, immersive experience of crisis situations. To simplify the design of such games while ensuring their relevance, we propose a design method that is based on reference tasks. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated by the improved design of the serious game “Disaster in my Backyard” that has been played during ISCRAM Summer school 2013. The design incorporates humanitarian logistics, search-and-rescue and coordination tasks. We also present the lessons learned from this instantiation of the game and give an outlook towards future research, such as the evaluation of tools for crisis response and management through the use of serious games and reference tasks.
Address University of Münster, Germany; Tilburg University, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher The Pennsylvania State University Place of Publication University Park, PA Editor S.R. Hiltz, M.S. Pfaff, L. Plotnick, and P.C. Shih.
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition