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Daniel Auferbauer, Christoph Ruggenthaler, Gerald Czech, & Ivan Gojmerac. (2019). Taxonomy of Community Interaction in Crises and Disasters. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Taxonomies are integral to systems engineering, as they structure our knowledge of a field and so provide the
foundation for technological development. We contribute such taxonomies for the field of Community
Interaction and Engagement in Crisis and Disaster Management, which represents the interface between
members of the public who commit to relief efforts and established organisations that have a pre-defined role in
crisis management. These actors are unified in their purpose to help those in need, but also set apart by their
organisational structures and modes of operation. We classify the actors of Community Interaction and
Engagement, as well as the interactions between them. Our contribution outlines areas where the application of
Information and Communication Technology can offer benefits to Community Interaction and Engagement.
Keywords: Information and communication technology, sociotechnical systems, crisis and disaster management, community interaction
David Paulus, Kenny Meesters, Gerdien de Vries, & Bartel Van de Walle. (2019). The reciprocity of data integration in disaster risk analysis. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Humanitarian organizations are increasingly challenged by the amount of data available to drive their decisions. Useful data can come from many sources, exists in different formats, and merging it into a basis for analysis and planning often exceeds organizations? capacities and resources. At the same time, affected communities? participation in decision making processes is often hindered by a lack of information and data literacy capacities within the communities. We describe a participatory disaster risk analysis project in the central Philippines where the community and a humanitarian NGO worked towards a joint understanding of disaster risks and coping capacities through data integration and IT-supported analysis. We present findings from workshops, focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews, showing the reciprocal effects of the collaborative work. While the community valued the systematically gathered and structured evidence that supported their own risk perceptions and advocacy efforts, the humanitarian NGO revisited established work practices for data collection for analysis and planning.
Keywords: Reciprocity, Resilience, Disaster risk analysis, Community engagement, Organizational effectiveness, Data integration
Elina Ramsell, Tobias Andersson Granberg, & Sofie Pilemalm. (2019). Identifying functions for smartphone based applications in volunteer emergency response. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Emergency response organisations struggle with resource constraints and thereby faces challenges in providing
high-quality public services. Utilising voluntary first responders is one way to address these challenges. There
are different types of volunteers who can help at an emergency site, e.g. citizen volunteers or voluntary
professionals from other occupations. To successfully engage with and utilise these resources, adequate
information and communication technology (ICT) is necessary. In this meta-study, combining and further
exploring two previous studies, the aim is to identify, analyse and evaluate suitable functions for smartphone
applications that can be used to dispatch and support volunteers. The results show that the functions can be
divided into essential ones that are necessary for the response to work at all, and others that might contribute to a
more effective response. The study also shows that the same functions can be used for different volunteer
Jennifer Lisa Chan, Gabriel Nam, Allison G. Marshall, & Hemant Purohit. (2019). Trends in Humanitarian Health Information during 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Motivation for Curating Domain Knowledge Base. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Health response plays a major role during disasters and information management plays a crucial role in situational awareness to adapt to evolving needs. Health organizations exchange information often through narrative-based documents called situation reports. Although situation reports are widely shared, they are an increasingly challenging information source from which to infer knowledge for situational awareness. This paper analyzed health information from traditional health reports using mixed methods during the aftermath of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake and provides insights into the patterns of what?s being said, how it?s being said, and trends over time. Opportunities lie ahead to analyze narrative documents at scale by combining human knowledge from qualitative coding with machine intelligence. In addition, developing unifying health domain ontologies representing diverse humanitarian health concepts will advance computational techniques to improve
the efficiency and accuracy of retrieving knowledge for improved situational awareness and potential decision
making during humanitarian health response.
Kenny Meesters, Vittorio Nespeca, & Tina Comes. (2019). Designing Disaster Information Management Systems 2.0: Connecting communities and responders. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Information and supporting information systems is a key element in an effective emergency response. From
creating situational awareness to informed decision making, information enables responders to optimize their
decisions and operations. Today, with the increased availability of information technology around the globe, a
new active player in the field of information management is emerging as communities are becoming increasingly
active in the field of information gathering, analyzing and sharing.
However, communities may have specific requirements and approaches to using information systems in crisis
situations. Moreover, connecting information systems between communities and responder pose specific
challenges due to the different information needs, capacities and incentives to use them. In this paper we build on
the DERMIS premises and explore through a case study if and how these principles apply to inclusive information
systems. We present the initial findings of this work of designing information systems involving both communities
and formal responders.
Keywords: Information Systems, Community Engagement, Participatory Systems, Systems Design, Inclusive Systems
Olawunmi George, Rizwana Rizia, MD Fitrat Hossain, Nadiyah Johnson, Carla Echeveste, Jose Lizarraga Mazaba, et al. (2019). Visualizing Early Warning Signs of Behavioral Crisis in Military Veterans: Empowering Peer Decision Support. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Several attempts have been made at creating mobile solutions for patients with mental disorders. A preemptive approach would definitely outdo a reactive one. This project seeks to ensure better crisis detection, by assigning patients (veterans) to caregivers (mentors). This is called the mentor-mentee approach. Enhanced with the use of mobile technology, veterans can stay connected in their daily lives to mentors, who have gone through the same traumatic experiences and have overcome them. A mobile application for communication between veterans and their mentors has been developed, which helps mentors get constant feedback from their mentees about their state of well-being. However, being able to make good deductions from the data given as feedback is of great importance. Under-represent ing or over-representing the data could be dangerously misleading. This paper presents the design process in this project and the key things to note when designing a data visualization for
timely crisis detection and decision-making.
Peter Berggren, Molly Lundberg, Joeri van Laere, & Björn J E Johansson. (2019). Community resilience towards disruptions in the payment system. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: This paper presents a study where nine Swedish citizens were interviewed about their concerns and expectations, from a customer perspective, in relation to a 10 day disruption in the payment system. The purpose of the study was to understand the customer?s perspective in order to provide input to the development of a simulation environment. This simulation environment aims at allowing different stakeholders to experience how a disruption in the payment system affects the local community and thereby create understanding of how resilience is built and affected. The research questions were: What do customers expect to get access to? When? What are customers prepared for? How does this differ among different customer groups? The results indicate some understanding of how such a crisis affects the local community and what the informants expects to happen. The respondents represented a diversity of socio-economic backgrounds from rural and urban parts of the municipality.
Robin Batard, Caroline Rizza, Aurélie Montarnal, Frédérick Bénaben, & Christophe Prieur. (2019). Taxonomy of post-impact volunteerism types to improve citizen integration into crisis response. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and particularly Social Media, drastically changed communication channels and organization during a crisis response. In this context, new forms of citizen initiatives appear, contributing to situational awareness, providing new profiles of stakeholders and broadening the scope of volunteerism in disaster situations. Thus, given the increasing need to understand and take citizen initiatives into account, this article provides a taxonomy of volunteerism types in crisis contexts, based on a literature review on the subject. Mapped on two main dimensions: the status (who they are) and the focus (what they are doing), multiple types of volunteers are presented on this taxonomy. Then, the article deals with possible use of this taxonomy towards integration of citizen initiatives into the crisis response.