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Ana C. Calderon, Joanne Hinds, & Peter Johnson. (2013). Leading cats: How to effectively command collectives. In J. Geldermann and T. Müller S. Fortier F. F. T. Comes (Ed.), ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 32–41). KIT; Baden-Baden: Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to enhance the understanding of command and control in collectives, paying particular attention to coalition situations when multiple, typically autonomous agencies are expected to work together harmoniously. There are two different approaches to dealing with commands, one approach focuses on individual command components and the other studies the interplay between different commands. This paper is a first attempt at bringing these two views together, with the aim of understanding what is needed for human autonomous systems to work as collectives through command and control systems that achieve their full capability through “command by intent”, while also encouraging and encompassing new agile behaviour both at the individual and organizational level. We have identified key aspects of commands in collectives (both from existing literature and from our own work) and demonstrate our findings in case studies taken from hurricane Katrina, 1995 Oklahoma city bombings, the 2001 attack on the Pentagon, as well as some incidents of lower complexity, such as an oil spillage on a motorway.
Keywords: Command and control systems; Collectives; Command and control; Command by intent; Disaster response; Multiple agencies; Information systems
Ana C. Calderon, Joanne Hinds, & Peter Johnson. (2014). IntCris: A tool for enhanced communication and collective decision-making during crises. In and P.C. Shih. L. Plotnick M. S. P. S.R. Hiltz (Ed.), ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 205–214). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: Responding to a large-scale disaster such as an earthquake or hurricane is a collective problem. Human agents are increasingly collaborating with non-human agents (autonomous systems) in attempt to respond to a disaster. IntCris is a prototype intended to bring together interaction for human and non-human agents to aid the decision-making process by focusing on how to facilitate the “correct information to the correct agent” problem as well as encouraging new and agile behaviour. We focus on three categories of information: command, report and personal with a formal grammar to accompany the implementation. The requirements for the software were inspired by real life case studies from Hurricane Katrina, the Fukoshima Nuclear Disaster and Hurricane Sandy. The contribution of this work is to advance technology that brings together HAS (human and autonomous system interaction), in addition to enhancing collective intelligence.
Keywords: Computational grammars; Disasters; Hurricanes; Information systems; Autonomous systems; Collaborative technologies; Collective decision-making; Collective intelligences; Decision making process; Emergency response; Hurricane katrina; Large-scale disasters; Decision making
Track: Decision Support Systems