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Kamil Panitzek, Immanuel Schweizer, Dirk Bradler, & Max Mühlhäuser. (2011). City mesh – Resilient first responder communication. In E. Portela L. S. M.A. Santos (Ed.), 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011. Lisbon: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: Communication between first responders is vital to the success of large scale disaster management. But communication technologies used by first responders today do not scale well due to heterogeneity, point-topoint connections, and centralized communication structures. As the popularity of devices equipped with Wi-Fi grows, the number of access points (APs) in city centers increases as well. This communication infrastructure exists and should be used in city wide disasters as it is readily available in areas with high population density. In this paper, we investigate Wi-Fi access points in 5 major cities deployed in stores, bars, and restaurants. We want to answer the question if these APs can be used as a mesh networking backbone in disaster response. The main contributions of this paper are (i) the surveyed and analyzed public Wi-Fi layout of five major cities and (ii) the connectivity analysis of the city wide network topology.
Keywords: Disaster prevention; Electric network topology; Information systems; MESH networking; Population statistics; Wireless ad hoc networks; City area; Communication infrastructure; Communication structures; Communication technologies; Connectivity analysis; High population density; Large scale disasters; Resilience; Disasters
Track: Mobile and Sensor Networks
Kamil Panitzek, Tobias Bönning, Immanuel Schweizer, Gero Seipel, & Max Mühlhäuser. (2012). Enhancing robustness of first responder communication in urban environments. In Z.Franco J. R. L. Rothkrantz (Ed.), ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management. Vancouver, BC: Simon Fraser University.
Abstract: Communication is crucial for first responders. Crisis management is nearly impossible without good means of communication. Unfortunately the communication technology used by first responders today does not scale well. Also most of the given infrastructure, such as cell towers, might be destroyed. In recent research ad-hoc and peer-to-peer based communication has been proposed to solve the problem of resilient communication. Most mobile devices are equipped with wireless transceivers that make them suitable to participate in ad-hoc networks. But node density might be too small for a connected topology. In this paper we, therefore, discuss the implications of an emergency switch for private wireless routers allowing them to transition to an emergency mode to create a supportive wireless mesh network. To analyze if such a network would result in a resilient topology real data from wireless routers in a city is gathered. We calculate the locations of private and public routers from GPS traces and compare the resulting networks with each other. Â© 2012 ISCRAM.
Keywords: Information systems; Mobile devices; Topology; Wireless mesh networks (WMN); Analysis; First Response; Resiliency; Urban areas; Wireless routers; Routers