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Siska Fitrianie, Ronald Poppe, Trung H. Bui, Alin Gavril Chitu, Dragos Datcu, Ramón Dor, et al. (2007). A multimodal human-computer interaction framework for research into crisis management. In K. Nieuwenhuis P. B. B. Van de Walle (Ed.), Intelligent Human Computer Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM 2007 Academic Proceedings Papers (pp. 149–158). Delft: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: Unreliable communication networks, chaotic environments and stressful conditions can make communication during crisis events difficult. The current practice in crisis management can be improved by introducing ICT systems in the process. However, much experimentation is needed to determine where and how ICT can aid. Therefore, we propose a framework in which predefined modules can be connected in an ad hoc fashion. Such a framework allows for rapid development and evaluation of such ICT systems. The framework offers recognition of various communication modalities including speech, lip movement, facial expression, handwriting and drawing, body gesture, text and visual symbols. It provides mechanisms to fuse these modalities into a context dependent interpretation of the current situation and generate appropriate the multimodal information responses. The proposed toolbox can be used as part of a disaster and rescue simulation. We propose evaluation methods, and focus on the technological aspects of our framework.
Keywords: Character recognition; Communication systems; Disasters; Human computer interaction; Speech recognition; Communication modalities; Evaluation methods; Facial Expressions; Multi-modal information; Multimodal human computer interaction; Multimodal system; Rescue simulation; Technological aspects; Face recognition
Xiang Yao, Murray Turoff, & Starr Roxanne Hiltz. (2010). A field trial of a collaborative online scenario creation system for emergency management. In C. Zobel B. T. S. French (Ed.), ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings. Seattle, WA: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: In Emergency Management and Business Continuity Planning, scenarios are a widely used tool. Existing scenario creation systems allow distributed groups to create scenarios together but have limited collaboration support. This study developed and evaluated a solution to provide various types of collaboration support around a knowledge structure at the core of a collaborative scenario creation system called Collario. Following the Design Science paradigm, it evolved through four iterations into a working prototype. Several evaluation methods, including protocol analysis and field study, were employed to evaluate the design effects and obtain user feedback. The results of the first field trial are described in this paper. They indicate that the system is useful to support creation and discussion of emergency scenarios in virtual teams and to share knowledge and experiences among geographically distributed emergency professionals and researchers. It was also found that the system is not hard to learn and use.
Keywords: Civil defense; Design; Disasters; Information systems; Business continuity planning; Collaboration support; Collaborative systems; Emergency management; Emergency scenario; Evaluation methods; Knowledge structures; Scenarios; Risk management