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Lucy T. Gunawan, Siska Fitrianie, Willem-Paul Brinkman, & Mark A. Neerincx. (2012). Utilizing the potential of the affected population and prevalent mobile technology during disaster response: Propositions from a literature survey. In Z.Franco J. R. L. Rothkrantz (Ed.), ISCRAM 2012 Conference Proceedings – 9th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management. Vancouver, BC: Simon Fraser University.
Abstract: Despite the growing awareness of the untapped potential of the affected population in a disaster situation, their inclusion in a disaster management is extremely limited. This study aims to survey the literature to see whether utilizing the affected people and prevalent mobile technology can be used during disaster response. The idea is to provide the affected with a way to lead themselves to safety and empower them to serve as distributed active sources of information. This way, those people will reach safety by themselves, while at the same time helping to construct a clear image of the disaster situation without burdening the already overwhelmed emergency services. This study examines knowledge derived from disaster sociology, draws on experience from recent disasters, and extrapolates current technological solutions. By establishing that such a solution is feasible, it offers a basis for empirical studies on a mobile technology that can be used during disaster response. Â© 2012 ISCRAM.
Keywords: Disaster prevention; Disasters; Information systems; Surveys; Telecommunication equipment; Crowdsourcing; Disaster management; Disaster response; Disaster situations; Literature survey; Sources of informations; Technological solution; The role of community; Emergency services
Andrea Kavanaugh, Francis Quek, Steven D. Sheetz, & B. Joon Kim. (2010). Cell phone use with social ties during crises: The case of the Virginia Tech tragedy. In C. Zobel B. T. S. French (Ed.), ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings. Seattle, WA: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: Many proposed technological solutions to emergency response during disasters involve the use of cellular telephone technology. However, cell phone networks quickly become saturated during and/or immediately after a disaster and remain saturated for critical periods. In this study, we investigated cell phone use by Virginia Tech students, faculty and staff during the shootings on April 16, 2007 to identify patterns of communication with social network ties. We administered an online survey to a random sample from our pool to capture communications behavior with social ties during the day of these tragic events. The results show that cell phones were the most heavily used communication technology by a majority of respondents (both voice and text messaging). While text messaging makes more efficient use of bandwidth than voice, most communication on 4/16 was with parents, since the majority of the sample is students, who are less likely to use text messaging. Our findings should help in understanding how cell phone technologies may be utilized or modified for emergency situations in similar communities.
Keywords: Cellular telephones; Disasters; Information systems; Mobile phones; Telecommunication equipment; Cell phone; Communication technologies; Emergency communication; Emergency response; Emergency situation; Patterns of communication; Survey research; Technological solution; Text messaging
Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi, Immanuel Schweizer, Dirk Bradler, Florian Probst, & Jürgen Steimle. (2010). Towards computer support of paper workflows in emergency management. In C. Zobel B. T. S. French (Ed.), ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings. Seattle, WA: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: A crucial aspect for large-scale disaster management is an efficient technology support for communication and decision-making processes in command and control centers. Yet, experiences with the introduction of novel technologies in this setting show that field professionals tend to remain attached to traditional workflows and artifacts, such as pen and paper. We contribute the results of a comprehensive field study which analyzes how the information flow is currently performed within different units and persons in the command and control center. These findings provide insights into key aspects of current workflows which should be preserved by novel technological solutions. As our second contribution, by using a participatory design approach and based on our findings, we present a novel approach for computer support in command and control centers. This relies on digital pens and paper and smoothly integrates traditional paper-based workflows with computing, thereby combining the advantages of paper and those of computers.
Keywords: Civil defense; Disaster prevention; Disasters; Human computer interaction; Information systems; Risk management; Command and control centers; Decision making process; Efficient technology; Emergency management; Large-scale disasters; Participatory design; Technological solution; User study; Paper
Track: Human-Computer Interaction