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Theresa I. Jefferson, & John R. Harrald. (2014). Estimating the impacts associated with the detonation of an improvised nuclear device. In and P.C. Shih. L. Plotnick M. S. P. S.R. Hiltz (Ed.), ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 80–84). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: The explosion of an improvised nuclear device (IND), in any American city, would cause devastating physical and social impacts. These impacts would exceed the response capabilities of any city, state or region. The potential loss and suffering caused by an IND detonation can be dramatically reduced through informed planning and preparedness. By incorporating estimates of the impacts associated with the detonation of an IND into the planning process, jurisdictions can estimate the scale and scope of their response requirements. A prototype, computer-based tool was developed to quantify the human impacts associated with an IND detonation. Using various types of information such as the approximation of the prompt radiation footprint, blast footprint, and thermal footprint of the detonation, along with an estimation of the level of protection provided by building structures the system calculates the number and type of injuries that can be expected in a monocentric urban area.
Keywords: Disasters; Information systems; Radiation protection; Urban planning; Building structure; Computer based tools; Improvised nuclear devices; Man-made disasters; Planning process; Preparedness; Response capability; Scale and scope; Detonation
Magnus Jändel, Sinna Lindquist, & Linus Luotsinen. (2013). Social coverage maps. In J. Geldermann and T. Müller S. Fortier F. F. T. Comes (Ed.), ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 241–250). KIT; Baden-Baden: Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie.
Abstract: This paper introduces Social Coverage Maps (SCM) as a visual representation of the societal impact of localized disruptions in urban areas. Incited by the recent deliberate interruption of wireless services for the purpose of crowd control in San Francisco, we focus on the use of SCMs for representing emergent effects of electronic warfare. As a prequel we discuss maps and other visualizations as representations of human behaviour and relations. The SCM concept is defined and grounded in simulation-based parameters. Using an experimental scenario based on cell phone jamming in a city we show how SCMs are generated using an agent-based population simulator. We find that Social Coverage Maps could become a useful tool for analysing emergent effects of actions and events including electronic warfare, roadblocks, smoke, teargas, chemical and radioactive contamination with applications in operational and emergency planning as well as crisis management.
Keywords: Flow visualization; Information systems; Urban planning; Visualization; Command and control; Crisis management; Emergency planning; Human behaviours; Radioactive contamination; Social simulations; Visual representations; Wireless services; Electronic warfare
Track: Decision Support Systems
P. Lin, & S.M. Lo. (2005). The application of quickest flow problem in urban evacuation planning. In B. C. B. Van de Walle (Ed.), Proceedings of ISCRAM 2005 – 2nd International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 129–130). Brussels: Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium.
Abstract: The provision of evacuation plan for people living in populated urban area is necessary to reduce the possible casualties under disasters. Time-varying quickest flow problem (TVQFP), which can simultaneously optimize the evacuation schedule, evacuation locations and evacuation routes, is adopted to optimize the evacuation planning of a city to minimize the clearance time of residents in danger. The integration of optimization model with GIS environment enables emergency managers to easily identify possible bottlenecks and to observe evacuation patterns in vivid pictures for further analysis and evaluation.
Keywords: Geographic information systems; Information systems; Optimization; Analysis and evaluation; Evacuation planning; Evacuation plans; Evacuation routes; Flow problems; Optimization modeling; Time varying; Urban evacuation; Urban planning
Track: POSTER SESSION