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Nitesh Bharosa, Marijn Janssen, Raghav H. Rao, & JinKyu Lee. (2008). Adaptive information orchestration: Architectural principles improving information quality. In B. V. de W. F. Fiedrich (Ed.), Proceedings of ISCRAM 2008 – 5th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 556–565). Washington, DC: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: Effective responsiveness to disasters requires the management of information in a network of autonomous response agencies. Yet, the information quality is often insufficient. Information is scattered throughout the network and needs to be collected from heterogeneous information sources. As such, adaptive information orchestration is the key to effective response. The aim of this paper is to develop a prescriptive, conceptual architecture guided by architectural principles for orchestration aimed at improving information quality. Information orchestration refers to an information architecture in which multiple orchestrators match information supply according to the information demand in order to assure a high information quality for relief workers. A primarily element is that information needs to be 'enriched' before it is provided to relief workers and necessary resources (human, information and technology) should be available to accomplish this. This should ensure that the right information will be delivered to the right persons at the right moment. Future research is aimed at detailing the concept of information orchestration.
Keywords: Architecture; Information analysis; Information systems; Network architecture; Adaptivity; Architectural principles; Heterogeneous information sources; Information and technologies; Information architectures; Information quality; Orchestration; Rotterdam; Information management
Bruno S. N., Adriana S. Vivacqua, & Marcos R.S. Borges. (2016). A Conceptual Architecture to handle the influx of information in Emergency Situations. In A. Tapia, P. Antunes, V.A. Bañuls, K. Moore, & J. Porto (Eds.), ISCRAM 2016 Conference Proceedings ? 13th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.
Abstract: Emergency situations are characterized by their complexity and the heterogeneity of the available information. Emergency managers are frequently confronted with redundant or irrelevant information, causing the problem of information overload. Evidence of this problem was identified in an exploratory survey conducted in the Center for Integrated Command and Control of Rio de Janeiro (CICC-RJ). In this paper, we present a conceptual architecture that allows a user to handle this influx of information. From a set of available data, a manager can select those of interest, which can then be transformed and mapped into one or more views, and organized in a dashboard. The whole process is interactive, allowing the manager to redefine his/her dashboard as needed. In addition, we provide collaborative mechanisms, given that, at times, it is not possible for a single user to handle such large datasets alone.
Keywords: Emergency; Heterogeneous Information Sources; Information Integration; Collaboration; Visualization Of Information; Dashboards.
Track: Command and Control Studies
Tom De Groeve, Zsofia Kugler, & G. Robert Brakenridge. (2007). Near real time flood alerting for the global disaster alert and coordination system. In K. Nieuwenhuis P. B. B. Van de Walle (Ed.), Intelligent Human Computer Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM 2007 Academic Proceedings Papers (pp. 33–39). Delft: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: A new flood monitoring module is in development for the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). GDACS is an information system designed to assist humanitarian responders with their decisions in the early onset after a disaster. It provides near-real time flood alerts with an initial estimate of the consequences based on computer models. Subsequently, the system gathers information in an automated way from relevant information sources such as international media, mapping and scientific organizations. The novel flood detection methodology is based on daily AMSR-E passive microwave measurement of 2500 flood prone sites on 1435 rivers in 132 countries. Alert thresholds are determined from the time series of the remote observations and these are validated using available flood archives (from 2002 to present). Preliminary results indicate a match of 47% between detected floods and flood archives. Individual tuning of thresholds per site should improve this result.
Keywords: Disasters; Information systems; Coordination systems; Humanitarian aid; Information sources; Initial estimate; International media; Microwave remote sensing; Passive microwave measurements; Remote observation; Floods
Tristan Endsley, Yu Wu, & James Reep. (2014). The source of the story: Evaluating the credibility of crisis information sources. In and P.C. Shih. L. Plotnick M. S. P. S.R. Hiltz (Ed.), ISCRAM 2014 Conference Proceedings – 11th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 160–164). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University.
Abstract: In a highly connected world, information coming from different media sources and social relationships are more quickly disseminated than ever before. Natural disasters such as Typhoon Haiyan capture attention globally. Investigations of how people respond to the credibility of different sources have implications for policy making and information systems design. In this paper, we studied how different factors (strength of social ties and sources of crisis information) affect perception of credibility of crisis information about natural disasters. Our analysis and findings indicate that for crisis information about natural disasters, people tend to trust traditional media channels, such as printed news, and televised news. The type of social tie also influences the perceived credibility of the crisis information.
Keywords: Information systems; Credibility; Information sources; Media channel; Media types; Natural disasters; Policy making; Social relationships; Social ties; Disasters
Jürgen Moßgraber, Fernando Chaves, Stuart E. Middleton, Zlatko Zlatev, & Ran Tao. (2013). The seven main challenges of an early warning system architecture. In J. Geldermann and T. Müller S. Fortier F. F. T. Comes (Ed.), ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (pp. 322–331). KIT; Baden-Baden: Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie.
Abstract: In this paper, we describe the work on the system architecture that is being developed in the EU FP7 project TRIDEC on “Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises”. One of the two decision support use cases in the project deals with Tsunami Early Warning. A modern warning system that follows a system-of-systems approach has to integrate various components and subsystems such as different information sources, services and simulation systems. Furthermore, it has to take into account the distributed and collaborative nature of warning systems. Working on the architecture of such a system, you need to deal with a lot of current computer science and information technology problems as well as state-of-the-art solutions from the areas of Big Data and Human Sensors. In this paper, we present the seven main challenges we needed to solve and describe the necessary design decisions we made to tackle them.
Keywords: Decision support systems; Information systems; Middleware; Decision supports; Design decisions; Early warning; Early Warning System; Information sources; Simulation systems; System architectures; System-of-systems; Alarm systems
Linda Plotnick, Elizabeth Avery Gomez, Connie White, & Murray Turoff. (2007). Furthering development of a unified emergency scale using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment: A progress report. In K. Nieuwenhuis P. B. B. Van de Walle (Ed.), Intelligent Human Computer Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM 2007 Academic Proceedings Papers (pp. 411–418). Delft: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: In disasters, local civilians on or near the scene, are often first to respond and give aid. Therefore, the public needs to be well-informed with accurate, time critical information. However, a primary information source is event-specific scales that are inconsistent in their categorization and measurement, adding confusion to public responsiveness. These scales are not extendable to new emergencies in a changing world. We argue for development of a unified emergency scale to facilitate communication and understanding. This scale will inform local communities with regional community-specific information, and will be extendable for further use by professional responders. Research in progress elicited 15 dimensions of an emergency using a Delphi-like process and then ranked the dimensions by importance utilizing Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment. Contributions of this paper are to highlight the need for an unequivocal, unified scale and further its development.
Keywords: Risk management; Scheduling; Emergency management; Event-specific; Information sources; Local community; Paired comparison; Progress report; Public safety; Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment; Disasters
Alexander Smirnov, Tatiana Levashova, & Nikolay Shilov. (2010). Ubiquitous computing in emergency: Profile-based situation response. In C. Zobel B. T. S. French (Ed.), ISCRAM 2010 – 7th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: Defining Crisis Management 3.0, Proceedings. Seattle, WA: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: Ubiquitous computing opens new possibilities to various aspects of human activities. The paper proposes an approach to emergency situation response that benefits of the ubiquitous computing. The approach is based on utilizing profiles to facilitate the coordination of the activities of the emergency response operation members. The major idea behind the approach is to represent the operation members together with information sources as a network of services that can be configured via negotiation of participating parties. Such elements as profile structure, information source model and negotiation protocol are described in detail.
Keywords: Information systems; Ubiquitous computing; Emergency response; Emergency situation; Information sources; Negotiation; Negotiation protocol; Profile; Profile structure; Service; Emergency services
Track: Intelligent Systems
Steven Sheetz, Andrea Kavanaugh, Edward Fox, Riham Hassan, Seungwon Yang, Mohamed Magdy, et al. (2019). Information Uses and Gratifications Related to Crisis: Student Perceptions since the Egyptian Uprising. In Z. Franco, J. J. González, & J. H. Canós (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management. Valencia, Spain: Iscram.
Abstract: People use diverse sources of information, e.g., newspapers, TV, Internet news, social media, and face-to-face
conversations, to make sense of crises. We apply uses and gratifications theory (UGT) and structural equation
modeling to illustrate how using internet-based information sources since the political uprisings in Egypt influence
perceptions of information satisfaction. Consistent with expectations we find that content and process gratifications
constructs combine to explain information satisfaction, while social gratifications do not significantly influence
satisfaction in the context of a crisis. This suggests that UGT is useful for evaluating the use of information
technology in a context where information is limited in quantity and reliability.
Keywords: Uses and gratifications theory; information sources; Internet; social media; structural equation modeling
Eelco Vriezekolk, Roel Wieringa, & Sandro Etalle. (2011). A new method to assess telecom service availability risks. In E. Portela L. S. M.A. Santos (Ed.), 8th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management: From Early-Warning Systems to Preparedness and Training, ISCRAM 2011. Lisbon: Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM.
Abstract: Protection of society against natural and man-made disasters is high on the societal and political agenda. Effective crisis management is more important than ever. Nowadays, crisis organisations depend crucially on reliable telecom services, and unexpected failure of telecommunication may have serious consequences. In order not to be caught unprepared, crisis organisations should therefore perform a risk assessment on telecom availability. Unfortunately, assessment of availability risks of modern, multi-operator telecom services is difficult; information sources are unreliable, and the relevant information is uncertain and difficult to obtain. This paper describes some of these difficulties, as well as the requirements of availability risk assessment methods for crisis telecommunication services. The paper outlines a new method that can be applied without requiring full knowledge of the physical layout of the telecom infrastructure. This new method relies on telecom service diagrams as a tool for risk analysis and to facilitate dialogue among the analysts.
Keywords: Availability; Information systems; Telecommunication services; Crisis management; Information sources; Natural and man-made disasters; Political agenda; Risk assessment methods; Telecom infrastructures; Telecom services; Unexpected Failures; Risk assessment
Track: Planning and Foresight