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Author (up) Louise K. Comfort; Brian Colella; Mark Voortman; Scott Connelly; Jill L. Drury; Gary L. Klein; Wukich
Title Real-time decision making in urgent events: Modeling options for action Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 571-580
Keywords Information systems; Managers; Bayesian model; Decision space; Emergency response; Option awareness; Situation awareness; Decision making
Abstract Decision making in extreme events presents a difficult challenge to emergency managers who are legally responsible for protecting life, property, and maintaining continuity of operations for their respective organizations or communities. Prior research has identified the benefits of gaining situation awareness in rapidly changing disaster contexts, but situation awareness is not always sufficient. We have investigated “option awareness” and the decision space to provide cognitive support for emergency managers to simulate computationally possible outcomes of different options before they make a decision. Employing a user-centered design process, we developed a computational model that rapidly generates ranges of likely outcomes for different options and displays them visually through a prototype decision-space interface that allows rapid comparison of the options. Feedback from emergency managers suggests that decision spaces may enable emergency managers to consider a wider range of options for decisions and may facilitate more targeted, effective decision making under uncertain conditions.
Address Center for Disaster Management, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States; MITRE Corporation, Bedford, MA and McLean, VA, United States; Department of Political Science, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Innovations in Research Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 411
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Author (up) Ma Ma; Shengcheng Yuan; H. Zhang; Yi Liu
Title Framework design for operational scenario-based emergency response system Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 332-337
Keywords Decision making; Information systems; Information technology; Social sciences; Dynamic optimization; Emergency response systems; Human behavior analysis; Human behaviors; Psychological effects; Psychological factors; Scenario; Social information processing; Design
Abstract The present paper introduces a scenario-based framework design for connecting emergency response system with human behavior analysis and social information processing, which aims at improving its comprehensive capability in dealing with unexpected situations caused by physical, social and psychological factors during a crisis. The overall framework consists of four function modules: Scenario awareness, scenario analysis, scenario evolvement and scenario response. A detailed function design for each module is presented as well as the related methodologies used for integration of four modules. The contribution of this paper includes two aspects. One is realizing the integration of incident evolution, information-spreading and decision-making by taking account of physical, social and psychological effects during emergency. The other is improving the efficiency of decisionmaking through dynamic optimization process.
Address Institute of Public Safety Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 732
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Author (up) Magnus Jändel; Sinna Lindquist; Linus Luotsinen
Title Social coverage maps Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 241-250
Keywords Flow visualization; Information systems; Urban planning; Visualization; Command and control; Crisis management; Emergency planning; Human behaviours; Radioactive contamination; Social simulations; Visual representations; Wireless services; Electronic warfare
Abstract This paper introduces Social Coverage Maps (SCM) as a visual representation of the societal impact of localized disruptions in urban areas. Incited by the recent deliberate interruption of wireless services for the purpose of crowd control in San Francisco, we focus on the use of SCMs for representing emergent effects of electronic warfare. As a prequel we discuss maps and other visualizations as representations of human behaviour and relations. The SCM concept is defined and grounded in simulation-based parameters. Using an experimental scenario based on cell phone jamming in a city we show how SCMs are generated using an agent-based population simulator. We find that Social Coverage Maps could become a useful tool for analysing emergent effects of actions and events including electronic warfare, roadblocks, smoke, teargas, chemical and radioactive contamination with applications in operational and emergency planning as well as crisis management.
Address Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 618
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Author (up) Manne Messemaker; Jeroen Wolbers; Willem Treurniet; Kees Boersma
Title Shaping societal impact: Between control and cooperation Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 901-905
Keywords Information systems; Command and control; Crisis communications; Crisis management; Incident response; Mutual shaping; Security incident; Societal impacts; Concretes
Abstract In our modem society, the impact of large-scale spfety and security incidents can be large and diverse. Yet. this societal impact is makeable and controllable to a limited extent. At best, the effect of concrete response actions is that the direct damage is somewhat reduced and that the recovery is accelerated. Proper crisis communication can make the biggest difference with respect to overall societal impact. We argue that crisis communication must strike a balance between a directive approach of chaos, command and control and a more empathic approach of continuity, coordination and cooperation. On the basis of a concrete case we analyze how crisis communication reflects the incident response approach and how societal impact is affected.
Address VU University Amsterdam, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Social Media Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 770
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Author (up) Marlen Hofmann; Stefan Sackmann; Hans Betke
Title A novel architecture for disaster response workflow management systems Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 338-343
Keywords Disasters; Enterprise resource management; Information systems; Management information systems; Work simplification; Business Process; Business process management; Disaster response; Novel architecture; Workflow management systems; Emergency services
Abstract Due to the shared focus of disaster response management (DRM) and business process management on activities as well as the obvious similarity of disaster response processes (DRP) and business processes, the application of workflow management systems (WfMS) has been discussed as a promising approach to manage DRP. However, the application of WfMS in DRM has not yet been realized in practice. One reason for this is the lack of methods and tools in WfMS for taking interdependencies between activities, time, resource, and place into consideration. This considerably restricts the variety of DRP. Therefore, a novel architecture for a disaster response workflow management system is discussed. A special focus lies on the management and analysis of interdependencies that is seen as very promising to improve future DRM.
Address Dept. of Information Science and Information Management, Martin Luther University, Halle, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 589
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Author (up) Martijn Neef; Kees Van Dongen; Marijn Rijken
Title Community-based comprehensive recovery: Closing collaboration gaps in urban disaster recovery Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 546-550
Keywords Disasters; Information systems; Population statistics; Collaboration; Community-building; Community-involvement; Disaster recovery; Needs Assessment; Recovery
Abstract Disaster recovery in urban environments is a complex process. Because of high population densities and the presence of many societal and infrastructural dependencies, urban areas are prone to severe loss of self-reliance in case of a disaster. Rebuilding such areas to a self-sustaining state is a daunting task, and requires a high degree of community effort and comprehensive knowledge about the affected environment. All too often, these requirements are not properly met, leading to a long recovery trajectory and misalignments between recovery efforts and community needs. We suggest that most issues in disaster recovery stem from 'collaboration gaps': Flawed organisational structures between stakeholder parties that exist between levels of operation and between phases in the recovery process. We introduce two innovation pathways to close these gaps, and present the COBACORE project that will explore these pathways, and create a collaborative platform for effective community-based comprehensive disaster recovery.
Address TNO, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Humanitarian Challenges Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 805
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Author (up) Massimiliano Tarquini; Maurizio Morgano
Title Ethical challenges of participatory sensing for crisis information management Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 421-425
Keywords Information management; Information systems; Mobile devices; Philosophical aspects; Search engines; Social networking (online); Virtual reality; Web services; Ethical problems; Open datum; Participatory Sensing; Real-time searches; Social search; Digital storage
Abstract “Participatory Sensing is an approach to data collection and interpretation in which individuals, acting alone or in groups, use their personal mobile devices and web services to systematically explore interesting aspects of their worlds ranging from health to culture.”[ http://www.mobilizingcs.org/about/participatory-sensing] Data from the physical world of sensors and the virtual world of social networks and Linked Data can be combined into interesting high-level information. Sensor data can assist in localized information retrieval by giving the search engine direct access to events happening locally in the real world. Participatory sensing enables individuals and communities to collect and share granular, accurate data about a particular area. This paper describes work in progress within the FP7 EU-funded project SMART project to develop a multimedia search engine over content and information streaming from both the physical world and the Internet. We will identify some ethical problems regarding the use and storage of such data.
Address S3Log, Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 995
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Author (up) Matthias Lendholt; Martin Hammitzsch; Peter Löwe
Title Harmonization of data formats for tsunami simulation products Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 365-369
Keywords Computer simulation; Electronic data interchange; Information systems; Interoperability; Cost-effective approach; Data format; Information visualization; Open Standards; Proprietary technologies; Spatial informations; Tsunami early-warning systems; Tsunami simulation; Tsunamis
Abstract The development of sustainable tsunami early warning systems (TEWS) requires the adoption of proven standards for components on all system levels. This is crucial to ensure the successful operation of the overall system in the long term. Currently, components, data formats and models used to build an individual TEWS come from independent development efforts, using non-standardized proprietary interfaces. Integrating these components into a TEWS requires additional work effort due to the proprietary technologies and formats. This article discusses alternative cost-effective approaches. The successful integration of the TEWS system components depends critically on the adoption and application of industry standards and good practices. From this perspective, this article examines the role of tsunami simulation models, and the challenge to integrate the data products generated from independent tsunami models for a TEWS. The significance of tsunami simulation products, consisting of data and metadata, for the overall early warning workflow is described, including data exchange (among multiple TEWS) and information visualization in combination with additional spatial information. As an outcome, the use of standardized data formats for simulation products is recommended for future work. This approach is demonstrated on a simulation of the March 2011 Tohoku-Oki mega thrust earthquake.
Address German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 687
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Author (up) Matthias Max; Johannes Sautter
Title Analysis of a German first responder exercise: Requirements for exercise-support and simulation Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 923-924
Keywords Hardware; Personnel training; Complex workflows; Emergency situation; Exercise; First responders; Interactive system; Mass casualty incidents; Pre-triage; Simulation; Information systems
Abstract The work of first responders is marked by unpredictable situations, quick decisions and peak performance. Gathering all important information related to an emergency situation forms the basis for a meaningful and purposeful planning and action. For example during an accident scene the execution of complex individual orders is crucial. The many rescue facilities, rescue vehicles, and first responders needed lead to complex workflows. Real-life exercises are necessary to train controllers and first responders in handling these special situations, but are difficult and costly to organize. This paper gives a short overview of such an exercise and draws a rough practitioner-based vision of a potential simulation-based interactive system that could support exercise leaders and decision makers towards an effective utilization of real-life exercise data.
Address German Red Cross MaxM drk.de, Germany; Fraunhofer IAO, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Practitioners Track Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 749
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Author (up) Maximilian Walther; Sven Schaust; Michael Kaisser
Title Social media-based event detection for crisis management in the al za'atari refugee camp Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 927-928
Keywords Hardware; Crisis management; Event detection; Refugee camps; Relief organizations; Situational awareness; Social media analytics; Social media datum; User-generated content; Information systems
Abstract Social Media data allows for profound analyses of user-generated content in order to predict or manage disasters and crisis situations. In this paper, we present an analysis of tweets from and about Al Za'atari, a refugee camp in Jordan close to the Syrian border. Our results are based on the analysis of location-tagged tweets by our “Avalanche” system in order to support an accurate situational awareness picture for on-site and off-site operators from relief organizations on evolving events and challenges.
Address AGT Group (R and D) GmbH, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Practitioners Track Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1058
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Author (up) Michael E. Stiso; Aslak Wegner Eide; Ragnhild Halvorsrud; Erik G. Nilsson; Jan Håvard Skjetne
Title Building a flexible common operational picture to support situation awareness in crisis management Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 220-229
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Decision support systems; Risk management; Common operational picture; Crisis management; Decision supports; Situation awareness; User research; Information systems
Abstract Decision support systems for emergency management tend to focus on making a lot of data meaningful to particular users via a common operational picture (COP). This paper describes one such system, but one that goes further by making the COP flexible enough to support multiple users. Large crises involve frequent role switching between different actors in a response. Hence, predicting the support needs of a given user of a COP is difficult at best, complicating the design process. The solution described here is to use interactive information overlays to enable different users to fit the COP to their particular SA needs. The design was evaluated in two user workshops and a demonstration. In general, it was well-received, but domain experts cautioned that the tool must be usable not only in large crises but in everyday operations, or else it will not be used.
Address SINTEF ICT, Norway
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 976
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Author (up) Michael Morin; Irène Abi-Zeid; Thanh Tung Nguyen; Luc Lamontagne; Patrick Maupin
Title Search and surveillance in emergency situations – A gis-based approach to construct optimal visibility graphs Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 452-457
Keywords Computational geometry; Information systems; Integer programming; Space surveillance; Emergency situation; Gis-based; Integer Linear Programming; Maximum coverage; Search and rescue; Set cover; Terrain data; Visibility graphs; Geographic information systems
Abstract We present a methodology to construct optimal visibility graphs from vector and raster terrain data based on the integration of Geographic Information Systems, computational geometry, and integer linear programming. In an emergency situation, the ability to observe an environment, completely or partially, is crucial when searching an area for survivors, missing persons, intruders or anomalies. We first analyze inter-visibility using computational geometry and GIS functions. Then, we optimize the visibility graphs by choosing vertices in a way to either maximize coverage with a given number of watchers or to minimize the number of watchers needed for full coverage.
Address Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada; Department of Operations and Decision Systems, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada; Defence Research and Development Canada, Valcartier, QC, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 786
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Author (up) Michael R. Bartolacci; Albena Mihovska; Dilek Ozceylan Aubrecht
Title Optimization modeling and decision support for wireless infrastructure deployment in disaster planning and management Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 674-677
Keywords Base stations; Decision support systems; Disaster prevention; Disasters; Equipment; Information dissemination; Information systems; Mobile telecommunication systems; Optimization; Wireless networks; Communication solutions; Disaster planning; Optimization modeling; Real-time management; Wireless communications; Wireless infrastructure deployments; Wireless network optimizations; Wireless technologies; Wireless telecommunication systems
Abstract Natural disasters and emergencies create the need for communication between and among the affected populace and emergency responders as well as other parties such as governmental agencies and aid organizations. Such communications include the dissemination of key information such as evacuation orders and locations of emergency shelters. In particular, the coordination of efforts between responding organizations require additional communication solutions that typically rely heavily on wireless communications to complement fixed line infrastructure due to the ease of use and portability. While the deployment of temporary mobile networks and other wireless equipment following disasters has been successfully accomplished by governmental agencies and network providers following previous disasters, there appears to be little optimization effort involved with respect to maximizing key performance measures of the deployment or minimizing overall cost to deploy. This work does not focus on the question of what entity will operate the portable base stations or wireless equipment utilized during a disaster, only the question of optimizing placement for planning and real time management purposes. This work examines current wireless network optimization models and points out that none of them include the necessary variables for a disaster planning or emergency deployment context. Due to the fact that the choice of wireless technology impacts the nature of an overall model, a brief discussion of exemplar wireless technologies is included. The work also proposes criteria that must be taken into account in order to have a useful model for deployment of mobile base stations and related wireless communications equipment.
Address Penn State University, Berks, United States; CTIF-Aalborg Univerity, Denmark; Sakarya University, Turkey
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Analytical Modelling and Simulation Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 295
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Author (up) Mohamed Sediri; Nada Matta; Sophie Loriette; Alain Hugerot
Title Crisis clever, a system for supporting crisis managers Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 261-265
Keywords Hardware; Collaborative approach; Crisis management; Experience and situations representations; Experience feedback; Information systems
Abstract Crisis management is a special type of collaborative approach in which the actors are subject to an uninterrupted stress. It is a quite significant issue because the consequences of crises can bring huge damages (human and economic loses). In order to learn from expertise and reduce consequences, we present in this paper our first results related to the definition of structure and interfaces in order to handle experience of crisis management. The project aims to define the CCS (Crisis Clever System) as a decision making environment based on the emergency experience feedback (Experience representation and use).
Address ICD, Tech-CICO, Université de Technologie de Troyes, France; Emergency Department, PhMD SAMU 10, Troyes, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 932
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Author (up) Monika Büscher; Lisa Wood; Sung-Yueh Perng
Title Privacy, security, liberty: Informing the design of EMIS Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 401-410
Keywords Data privacy; Design; Disasters; Interoperability; Management information systems; Risk management; Civil liberties; Emergency management; Emergency management systems; Human practices; Liberty; Material practices; Security; Smart cities; Civil defense
Abstract This paper explores issues of security, privacy and liberty arising in relation to ICT supported emergency management. The aim is to inform the design of emergency management information systems (EMIS) and architectures that support emergent interoperability and assembly of emergency management systems of systems. We show how transformations of social and material practices of privacy boundary management create challenges, opportunities and dangers in this context. While opportunities include development of more efficient and agile emergency management models, building on smart city concepts, dangers include surveillance, social sorting and an erosion of civil liberties. Against this backdrop, we briefly explore human practice focused 'privacy by design' as a candidate design avenue.
Address Mobilities.lab, Lancaster University, United Kingdom; Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 358
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Author (up) Monika Büscher; Markus Bylund; Pedro Sanches; Leonardo Ramirez; Lisa Wood
Title A new manhattan project? Interoperability and ethics in emergency response systems of systems Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 426-431
Keywords Information systems; Philosophical aspects; Risk management; Systems engineering; Emergency management; Emergency response; Emergency response systems; Ethics; Manhattan Project; Multi agencies; Systems of systems; Interoperability
Abstract In this paper we discuss ethical challenges arising around IT supported interoperability in multi-agency emergency management and explore some methodological responses.
Address Mobilities.lab, Lancaster University, United Kingdom; Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden; Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology (FhG-FIT), Sankt Augustin, Germany; School of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 353
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Author (up) Muhammad Imran; Shady Elbassuoni; Carlos Castillo; Fernando Díaz; Patrick Meier
Title Extracting information nuggets from disaster- Related messages in social media Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 791-801
Keywords Artificial intelligence; Data visualization; Disasters; Information retrieval; Information systems; Learning systems; Social networking (online); Emergency responders; Extracting information; Machine learning methods; Situational awareness; Social media; Supervised classification; Twitter; Visualization system; Emergency services
Abstract Microblogging sites such as Twitter can play a vital role in spreading information during “natural” or man-made disasters. But the volume and velocity of tweets posted during crises today tend to be extremely high, making it hard for disaster-affected communities and professional emergency responders to process the information in a timely manner. Furthermore, posts tend to vary highly in terms of their subjects and usefulness; from messages that are entirely off-topic or personal in nature, to messages containing critical information that augments situational awareness. Finding actionable information can accelerate disaster response and alleviate both property and human losses. In this paper, we describe automatic methods for extracting information from microblog posts. Specifically, we focus on extracting valuable “information nuggets”, brief, self-contained information items relevant to disaster response. Our methods leverage machine learning methods for classifying posts and information extraction. Our results, validated over one large disaster-related dataset, reveal that a careful design can yield an effective system, paving the way for more sophisticated data analysis and visualization systems.
Address University of Trento, Italy; American Univ. of Beirut, Lebanon; QCRI, Qatar; Microsoft Research, Qatar
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Social Media Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 613
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Author (up) Murray Turoff; Victor A. Bañuls; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Linda Plotnick
Title A cross impact scenario model of organizational behavior in emergencies Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 703-713
Keywords Information systems; Cross impact; Delphi method; Emergencies; Organizational behavior; Scenario Modeling; Disasters
Abstract A conceptual model is developed of the events that can comprise a dynamic cross impact model of performance of a collection of organizations seeking to respond effectively to an emergency or disaster. It might also be used to model a single organization made up of organizational units. This paper provides a concise overview of the literature that supports the creation of the cross-impact event set. The major goal is to engage other professionals who might aid in supplying a collaborative set of estimates for the relative impacts among the events in what would be an asynchronous online Delphi Process.
Address NJIT, Spain; Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain; Jacksonville State University, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Planning and Foresight Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 1027
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Author (up) Nils Ellebrecht; Konrad Feldmeier; Stefan Kaufmann
Title IT's about more than speed. The impact of IT on the management of mass casualty incidents in Germany Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 391-400
Keywords Information systems; Information technology; Emergency response; Large-scale exercise; Mass casualty incidents; Operational benefits; Organisational; Organisational change; Rescue operations; Triage; Emergency services
Abstract In the new millennium new technologies (should) play an ever more prominent role in the management of mass casualty incidents (MCI). Drawing on empirical data from a four-year research project (SOGRO), the article reflects on the impact of information technologies (IT) on the organisation of emergency response and on rescue services against the backdrop of broader organisational shifts and contemporary demands. Because IT strengthens a particular way of MCI management, it is firstly described as expressing and reifying specific considerations of emergency response experts. Secondly, the benefits of an IT-based emergency response are critically reviewed. IT collects and makes available data about the rescue operation. Thus, it makes a formerly blurred rescue operation transparent. Although its operational benefit remains vague for on-scene executives, the visualisation reduces uncertainties among them. Thirdly, the article points out the inherent logics of IT. Its implementation not only satisfies newly evolved information needs, but also increases the control density.
Address Department of Sociology, University of Freiburg, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track ITís about more than speed. The impact of IT on the management of mass casualty incidents in Germany Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 473
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Author (up) Nour El Mawas; Jean-Pierre Cahier
Title Towards a knowledge-intensive serious game for training emergency medical services Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 135-139
Keywords Disasters; Emergency services; Information systems; Risk management; Crisis situations; Discussion forum; E-training; Participatory design; Serious games; Personnel training
Abstract In the preparedness activity for disasters and emergency management, serious games can help in training medical first responders by providing emergency simulations which are always available, safer and cheaper than real-world simulations. However, serious games for training emergency medical services (EMS) must take into account the presence of different actors in crisis situation like police and firefighters and the high volume of (medical as well as non-medical) expert knowledge. The aim of our approach is not only to acquire technical skills but also to develop the capability to act, to cooperate and coordinate in non-procedurally previewed emergency situations. This paper proposes both (i) a detailed prototype of a serious game's scenario that supports instructors in the training in EMS and (ii) an adaptive infrastructure A.R.G.I.L.E (Architecture for Representations, Games, Interactions, and Learning among Experts). We illustrate our ideas on an example of a complex road accident. This work is done with the collaboration of a Hospital Emergency Department implied with us in a R&D project.
Address ICD, Tech-CICO, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes Cedex, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Coordination and Collaboration Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 472
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Author (up) Olof Görnerup; Per Kreuger; Daniel Gillblad
Title Autonomous accident monitoring using cellular network data Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 638-646
Keywords Bayesian networks; Carrier mobility; Inference engines; Information systems; Sensor networks; Traffic congestion; Anomaly detection; Bayesian inference; Cellular network; Crisis management; Emergency response; Large scale sensor network; Mobile communication networks; Vehicular traffic scenarios; Accidents
Abstract Mobile communication networks constitute large-scale sensor networks that generate huge amounts of data that can be refined into collective mobility patterns. In this paper we propose a method for using these patterns to autonomously monitor and detect accidents and other critical events. The approach is to identify a measure that is approximately time-invariant on short time-scales under regular conditions, estimate the short and long-term dynamics of this measure using Bayesian inference, and identify sudden shifts in mobility patterns by monitoring the divergence between the short and long-term estimates. By estimating long-term dynamics, the method is also able to adapt to long-term trends in data. As a proof-of-concept, we apply this approach in a vehicular traffic scenario, where we demonstrate that the method can detect traffic accidents and distinguish these from regular events, such as traffic congestions.
Address Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Analytical Modelling and Simulation Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 537
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Author (up) Philip Degener; Henning Gösling; Jutta Geldermann.
Title Decision support for the location planning in disaster areas using multi-criteria methods Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 278-283
Keywords Decision support systems; Disasters; Facilities; Information systems; Location; Societies and institutions; Decision supports; Emergency relief; Facility location models; Facility locations; Multi-criteria method; Personnel resources; Pre-positioning; Warehouse location; Emergency services
Abstract In this paper, a multi-criteria facility location model is represented. The model is meant to support relief organisations to determine the best warehouse location to stock emergency relief supplies in the pre-disaster phase of a natural disaster. As a result of the prepositioning of the goods the relief organisations are able to respond immediately to an occurring disaster. In consideration of a multiplicity of quantitative and qualitative objectives a criteria hierarchy is developed which can be adapted to any specific disaster area by omitting irrelevant goals. Afterwards the multi-criteria methods PROMETHEE I+II as well as different sensitivity analysis are described and the model is applied on a local level in a flood-prone area in Bangladesh. Small organisations with restrictive financial and personnel resources can especially benefit from the clear structure of the model and the user friendliness and high transparency of the PROMETHE I+II methods.
Address Dept. of Organization and Corporate Development, University of Göttingen, Germany; Dept. of Production and Logistics, University of Göttingen, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Decision Support Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 439
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Author (up) Richard Arias-Hernandez; Brian Fisher
Title An interaction approach to enhance situational awareness and the production of anticipatory actions in emergency operation centers Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 488-496
Keywords Alignment; Risk management; Anticipation; Emergency operation centers; Human-centered designs; Interaction design; Joint actions; Situational awareness; Design
Abstract Recent findings from fieldwork conducted at emergency operation centers (EOC) suggest that currently deployed emergency management information systems (EMIS) are not supporting properly the anticipation of individual actions in cooperative work. We present these findings in this paper and introduce joint action theory as an interaction approach to design technologies that explicitly provide for this kind of support. Our main arguments are: (1) contemporary EMIS are affecting negatively cooperative work at EOCs due to their lack of support for the anticipation of individual actions; (2) Available theory that emphasizes the role of anticipation on cooperative work is not impacting on the design of EMIS due to misalignments between the theory and contemporary situations; (3) Joint action theory provides an alternative framework to correct these misalignments; and (4) Joint action theory provides designers of EMIS with guides for an interaction design that supports anticipatory actions in EOCs.
Address Simon Fraser University, Canada
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Emergency Management Information Systems Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 271
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Author (up) Robert Munro; Tyler Schnoebelen; Schuyler Erle
Title Quality analysis after action report for the crowdsourced aerial imagery assessment following hurricane sandy Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 929-930
Keywords
Abstract
Address Idibon, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Practitioners Track Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 795
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Author (up) Robin E. Mays; Rebecca Walton; Bridgette Savino
Title Emerging trends toward holistic disaster preparedness Type Conference Article
Year 2013 Publication ISCRAM 2013 Conference Proceedings – 10th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal ISCRAM 2013
Volume Issue Pages 764-769
Keywords Information systems; Disaster risk reductions; Holistic; Humanitarian response; Preparedness; Resilience; Disaster prevention
Abstract Our research reflects an emerging shift in understandings of effective preparedness practices from siloed approaches toward more holistic views. We trace a shifting perspective emerging in literature and present in the early qualitative data of current preparedness experts' interviews within an international humanitarian organization whose core mission is disaster preparedness and response. Designing effective information systems for disaster preparedness requires us to better understand the dynamic and implicit ways practitioners define effective work. Our pilot research begins to uncover preparedness experts' perspectives, with plans for the study to investigate how preparedness practitioners view, conduct, and evaluate their work at the lowest-level1. Our long-term research goal is to realize implications for the more effective design of tools and systems to support disaster preparedness.
Address Dept. of Human-Centered Design and Engineering, University of Washington, United States; Dept. of English, Utah State University, United States; School of Public Affairs, University of Washington Evans, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Karlsruher Institut fur Technologie Place of Publication KIT; Baden-Baden Editor T. Comes, F. Fiedrich, S. Fortier, J. Geldermann and T. Müller
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2411-3387 ISBN 9783923704804 Medium
Track Planning and Foresight Expedition Conference 10th International ISCRAM Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management
Notes Approved no
Call Number Serial 751
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