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Author (up) Andreas Lotter; Philipp John; Patricia Schütte; Florian Brauner; Frank Fiedrich pdf  isbn
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  Title Field Observation of Parallel Working Coordination Groups and Command and Control Centres to Understand and Improve Inter-organizational Information Management – A Methodical Approach Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 303-314  
  Keywords Information Management, Field Observation, Coordination Groups, Command and Control Centres, Risk and Crisis Management.  
  Abstract In emergency response, parallel working coordination groups and command and control centres are responsible to deal with complex events. A well-functioning exchange of information between organizations, officials and these coordination groups is the basis for an efficient risk management. This paper describes a methodical ap-proach for field observation to understand and improve the inter-organizational information management be-tween the involved partners. The method was tested within a practical approach and possible occurring problems during the observation were identified and solutions for these problems are provided.  
  Address University of Wuppertal, Germany; University of Wuppertal, Germany; University of Wuppertal, Germany; Kölner Verkehrs-Betriebe AG; University of Wuppertal, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-30 ISBN 2411-3416 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes lotter@uni-wuppertal.de Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2231  
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Author (up) Björn JE Johansson; Amanda Jaber; Joeri van Laere; Peter Berggren pdf  isbn
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  Title Crisis Response During Payment Disruptions – The Themes of TRAMS Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 264-275  
  Keywords Crisis Management, Payment Disruptions, Resilience, Thematic Analysis.  
  Abstract A qualitative analysis of observation protocols and audio recordings from 14 crisis response exercises has been conducted revealing eight themes reoccurring in multi-disciplinary team discussions about crisis response to large disruptions to the card payment system. The themes were: Coordinate and collaborate, Payment options, Cash circulation, Fuel and transportation, Security, Inform, communicate and the media, Hoarding and rationing, and Vulnerable groups. The analysis suggest that Swedish society is vulnerable to disruptions in the card payment services, largely due to a low diversity in payment options, the lack of prepared back up solutions for payment, and insufficient cash flows to support a cash only scenario. A longer (several days) disruption in the card payment system will demand coordinating mechanisms for information management, available payment options, and preparedness for rapid establishment of cash flows. Today, these mechanisms do not exist. Simulation exercises with stake-holders are an important mean for increasing awareness about these vulnerabilities and the challenges associated with coping with them.  
  Address Linköping University; Linköping University; Skövde University; Linköping University  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-26 ISBN 2411-3412 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes bjorn.j.johansson@liu.se Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2227  
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Author (up) Erik AM Borglund; Martina Granholm pdf  isbn
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  Title You Talk the Talk – But What Do You Talk About? Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 295-302  
  Keywords Command and Control, Common Operational Picture, Talk-Groups, TETRA, Transboundary Crisis.  
  Abstract Post-crisis analysis of transboundary crises in Sweden is problematic due to limited documentation. We believe that there is a need to find tools to better understand the command and control, and to understand how the information sharing that takes place during larger crises works. This paper presents the results of an ongoing research, as well as findings about how the TETRA system is used for information sharing in transboundary crises. The data used was collected from two large emergency exercises, where Swedish, Finnish and Norwegian TETRA systems were merged. Communication in 10 shared talk groups was recorded, transcribed and analyzed. The communication in shared TETRA-talk-groups mostly focused on information about the accident, the recourses and first respond units, as well as the actions of each unit. The research also exemplifies and shows that communication within TETRA-talk-groups in transboundary crisis can give new insight into how command and control works.  
  Address Mid Sweden University; Mid Sweden University  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-29 ISBN 2411-3415 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes erik.borglund@miun.se Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2230  
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Author (up) Jean-Paul Monet; Pierre Schaller; Sergio Pirone; Marc Castellnou Ribau; Stéphane Poyau; Marc Dumas pdf  isbn
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  Title Civil Protection in Europe: Towards a Unified Command System? Lessons Learned, Studies and Ideas About Change Management Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 315-325  
  Keywords Crisis Management, Incident, Command and Control System, Interoperability, European Union.  
  Abstract After the summer 2017 deadly wildfires in Portugal, President Juncker of the European Commission asked for “a stronger European Union (EU)”, clearly targeting civil protection management. This wish found achievement in the March 2019 guidance to establish a reserve of EU response capacities called “rescEU”, integrated into the jurisdictional basis of EU civil protection. However, the authors regret the ambition of this plan has not been fulfilled. Due to some very “European constraints” this “new deal” has introduced only small changes in terms of resources and knowledge management. In each of the past several years, climate change has brought new examples of fatal natural disasters: wildfires in Sweden, and Greece, and flash floods in Spain and France. Because of this continuous rise in disasters, and based on some lessons learned, the authors stress that it's now time to shape a project to improve European Civil Protection. The idea is to move from the already good modular system of the EU Civil Protection Mechanism to an integrated, robust, and unique European Command System, which clearly must be fully interoperable with other existing mechanisms (US ICS, UNOCHA...).  
  Address Bouches-du-Rhône Fire department; National French Fire Academy (Ensosp); Corpo forestal Piemonte, Italy; Pau Costa foundation, Spain; Landes Fire department; Bouches-du-Rhône Fire department  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-31 ISBN 2411-3417 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes jpmonet@sdis13.fr Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2232  
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Author (up) Kristine Steen-Tveit pdf  isbn
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  Title Identifying Information Requirements for Improving the Common Operational Picture in Multi-Agency Operations Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 252-263  
  Keywords Situational Awareness, Common Operational Picture, Information Sharing, Common Information Requirements, Multi-Agency Emergency Operations.  
  Abstract While there exists a considerable body of literature on the importance of a common operational picture (COP) in multi-agency emergency operations, the COP concept itself still lacks a univocal definition. Despite the lack of consensus regarding the mechanisms underlying the COP, the literature implies a level of consistency in the focus on sharing critical information. Based on interviews with Norwegian emergency management stakeholders, this study investigates common information requirements for emergency management services and presents an example of a framework for structuring the sharing of critical information and building a COP. Termed 'the window report', this framework is used among emergency stakeholders in Norway and Sweden. The study identified eight common information requirement categories for managing extreme weather scenarios. With a focus on common information needs and a process for structured information sharing, future strategic emergency management planning might take a more holistic perspective on cross-sectoral operations than in current practice.  
  Address Centre for Integrated Emergency Management, University of Agder  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-25 ISBN 2411-3411 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes kristine.steen-tveit@uia.no Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2226  
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Author (up) Kristine Steen-Tveit; Jaziar Radianti; Bjørn Erik Munkvold pdf  isbn
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  Title SMS-based real-time data collection for evaluation of situational awareness and common operational picture: lessons learned from a field exercise Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 276-284  
  Keywords Real-time Data Collection, Emergency Exercises, Situational Awareness, Common Operational Picture.  
  Abstract Managing complex multi-agency emergency operations requires that the key actors have a holistic, correct and dynamic situational awareness (SA) and that the involved actors establish a common operational picture (COP). Establishing SA and COP are key objectives in many multi-agency exercises, however, reported research shows limitations in existing methods and approaches for collecting the data required for evaluating this. By being able to capture near real-time information during different phases of the exercise we will be better positioned to identify what works well and what does not work in the process of establishing SA and COP. Our paper presents an example of real-time data collection using SMS during a multi-agency field exercise. Overall, the results support the idea of this as an effective method for collecting real-time data for analyzing the formation of SA and a COP among actors in emergency management.  
  Address Centre for Integrated Emergency Management (CIEM), University of Agder, Norway; University of Agder, Norway; University of Agder, Norway  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-27 ISBN 2411-3413 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes kristine.steen-tveit@uia.no Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2228  
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Author (up) Stephan Weijman; Kenny Meesters pdf  isbn
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  Title Shifting Control and Trust: Exploring Implications of Introducing Delegated Decision Support Systems Type Conference Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISCRAM 2020 Conference Proceedings – 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management Abbreviated Journal Iscram 2020  
  Volume Issue Pages 285-294  
  Keywords Command & Control (C2), Information Systems, Delegated decision-making, Empowerment, Trust & Control.  
  Abstract Increased information access and more intelligent information systems enable more operators in an organization to autonomously make decisions. These delegated decision-making opportunities play an important role during critical events, as operators -such as emergency teams and responders- can work independently and rely less on a centralized decision-making structure. Moreover, the operators' perceived level of trust increases while also limiting the coordinators' perceived control. In this paper, we examine the influence of such systems on the shift in perceived control and empowerment for both operators and commanders. In our experiments, conducted at the Royal Netherlands Air Force, we found that the introduction of these systems indeed affects perceived control and empowerment, specifically as perceived by the coordinator. These factors will play an important role in the effective use of such systems and their transformative effect on an organization. Especially considering the ongoing technical and organizational developments in crisis information management.  
  Address Royal Netherlands Air Force; Tilburg University  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Virginia Tech Place of Publication Blacksburg, VA (USA) Editor Amanda Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher W. Zobel  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-1-949373-27-28 ISBN 2411-3414 Medium  
  Track Command & Control Studies Expedition Conference 17th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management  
  Notes s.weijman@mindef.nl Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 2229  
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